Vinayaki

Vinayaki is an elephant-headed Hindu goddess. Her mythology and iconography are not clearly defined. Little is told about her in Hindu scriptures and very few images of this deity exist.
Due to her elephantine features, the goddess is generally associated with the elephant-headed god of wisdom, Ganesha. She does not have a consistent name and is known by various names, Stri Ganesha (“female Ganesha”), Vainayaki, Gajananā (“elephant-faced”), Vighneshvari (“Mistress of obstacles”) and Ganeshani, all of them being feminine forms of Ganesha’s epithets Vinayaka, Gajanana, Vigheshvara and Ganesha itself. These identifications have resulted in her being assumed as the shakti – feminine form of Ganesha.
Vinayaki is sometimes also seen as the part of the sixty-four yoginis or the matrika goddesses. However, scholar Krishan believes that Vinayakis in early elephant-headed matrikas, the Brahmnaical shakti of Ganesha, and the Tantric yogini are three distinct goddesses.
In the Jain and Buddhist traditions

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, Vinayaki is an independent goddess. In Buddhist works, she is called Ganapatihridaya (“heart of Ganesha”).

The earliest known elephant-headed goddess figure is found in Rairh, Rajasthan. It is a mutilated terracotta plaque dated from the first century BCE to the first century CE. The goddess is elephant-faced with the trunk turning to the right and has two hands. As the emblems in her hands and other features are eroded, a clear identification of the goddess is not possible.
Other elephant-headed sculptures of the goddess are found from the tenth century onwards. One of the most famous sculptures of Vinayaki is as the forty-first yogini in the Chausath Yogini Temple, Bhedaghat, Madhya Pradesh. The goddess is called Sri-Aingini here. Here, the goddess’s bent left leg is supported by an elephant-headed male, presumably Ganesha.
A rare metal sculpture of Vinayaki is found in Chitrapur Math, Shirali. She is full-breasted, but slender, unlike Ganesha. She wears the Yajnopavita (“sacred thread”) across her chest and two neck ornaments. Her two front hands are held in abhaya (“fear-not”) and varada (boon-giving) mudras (gestures). Her two back arms carry a sword and a noose. Her trunk is turned to the left. The image is probably 10th century from north-western India (Gujarat/Rajasthan) and belonging to the Tantric Ganapatya sect (who regarded Ganesha as the Supreme God) or to the vamachara (left-handed) Goddess-worshipping Shakta sect.
A Pala Vinayaki from Giryek, Bihar, is also not pot-bellied. The four-armed goddess carries a gada (mace), ghata (pot), parashu (axe) and possibly a radish. A Pratihara image shows a pot-bellied Vinayaki, with four arms holding a gada-parashu combination, a lotus, an unidentifiable object and a plate of modak sweets, which the trunk grabs. In both images, the trunk is turned to the right. Damaged four-armed or two-armed Vinayaki images are also found in Ranipur Jharial (Orissa), Gujarat and Rajasthan.
In another image from Satna, Vinayaki is one among five theriocephalic goddesses. The central figure, the cow-headed yogini, Vrishabha, holds the baby Ganesha in her arms. Vinayaki, a minor figure, is pot-bellied and carries an ankusha (elephant goad) like Ganesha. In this configuration, Vrishabha may be considered as a mother of Ganesha and other goddesses, thus signifying a sibling relationship between Vinayaki and Ganesha. Another interpretation suggests that all the female deities, including Vinayaki, are mothers of the infant god.
A similar image of Ganeshyani is also seen at the Bhuleshwar Temple of Shiva, near to Pune, Maharashtra.
In Cheriyanad Sreebalasubramaniya Swamy Temple, considered the Desadeva (God of Locality) of Cheriyanad village, is a wooden statue of Vinayaki which is situated in “Balikal Pura” of Temple.
Elephant-headed females appearing in the Puranas are demonesses or cursed goddesses. In a tale about Ganesha’s birth, the elephant-headed demoness Malini gives birth to Ganesha after drinking the bath-water of Parvati, Ganesha’s mother. In Skanda Purana, Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, is cursed to have an elephant head, which she gets rid of by pleasing the god Brahma by penance. These are not called Vinayaki and are remotely linked to Ganesha as a mother (Malini) or a consort (Lakshmi in some icons). The Harivamsa, Vayu Purana and Skanda Purana also describe elephant-faced Matrikas (“Mothers”), grahas (seizers) and ganas, who bear names like Gajananā (“elephant-faced”), Gajamukhi (“elephant-faced”) and Gajasya (“elephantine”). However, Krishan relates these Matrikas to Jyeshtha, the goddess of misfortune who is described as elephant-faced.
Vainayaki, not explicitly related to Ganesha, also appears in the Puranas. In the Matsya Purana (compiled c. 550 CE), she is one of the Matrikas, created by the god Shiva – Ganesha’s father – to defeat the demon Andhaka. In this context, she may be considered as a shakti of Shiva, rather than Ganesha. Only the name “Vainayaki” meaning “belonging to Vinayaka/Ganesha” may suggest an association. She also figures in a list of shaktis in the Linga Purana. The Agni Purana (compiled in the 10th century) is the first Purana that lists the shaktis of Ganesha; however, Vainayaki is not one of them, nor are any of them elephant-faced. Vainayaki figures in a list of sixty-four yoginis in the same Purana.
However, the upapurana (lesser Purana) Devi Purana explicitly identifies Gananayika or Vinayaki as the shakti of Ganesha, characterized by her elephant head and ability to remove obstacles like Ganesha, and includes her as the ninth Matrika. Though generally the number of Matrikas is seven in sculpture and literature, nine Matrikas became popular in eastern India. Apart from the classical seven, Mahalakshmi or Yogeshvari and Ganeshani or Ganeshā were added as eighth and ninth Matrika respectively.
The Medieval text Gorakshasamhita describes Vinayaki as elephant-faced, pot-bellied, having three eyes and four arms, holding a parashu and a plate of modaks.
Srikumara’s sixteenth century iconographical treatise Shilparatna describes a female form of Ganesha (Ganapati) called Shakti-Ganapati, who resides in the Vindhyas. The deity has an elephant head and two trunks. Her body is of a young woman, vermilion red in colour and with ten arms. She is pot-bellied and with full breasts and beautiful hips. This icon probably belongs to Shaktism, the Hindu Goddess-worshipping sect. However, this form is also interpreted as a composite of Ganesha and his shakti, due to the presence of the twin trunks.
In a Buddhist text called Aryamanjusrimulakalpa, the goddess is called the siddhi of Vinayaka. She inherits many of Ganesha’s characteristics. Like Ganesha, she is the creator of obstacles and has an elephant’s head with only one tusk. She is also called the daughter of the god Ishana, an aspect of Shiva.

Kerkko Koskinen

Kerkko Klemetti Koskinen (born 7 January 1973 in Espoo) is a Finnish musician. Koskinen was the founding member and lead figure of the retired band Ultra Bra. He composed nearly all of Ultra Bra’s songs and was the band’s pianist. His most well-known solo songs are Rakkaus viiltää (“Love Cuts”) and Sateentekijä (“Rainmaker”).
Koskinen has worked as a talent scout for BMG and composed music for the Finnish films Upswing and Young Gods. He also composed songs for Vuokko Hovatta’s solo album Lempieläimiä, one of which was a Eurovision Song Contest candidate called Virginia. Furthermore, Koskinen wrote the song Uuden ajan kynnyksellä (“At the Threshold of a New Time”) in memory of the murder of reporter Anna Politkovskaya.

In 2012, Koskinen formed Kerkko Koskinen Kollektiivi, a supergroup made up of Kerkko Koskinen on piano with a number of well-known vocalists, namely Manna (real name Mariam Jäntti), Vuokko Hovatta, Maija Vilkkumaa and Paula Vesala. The group released a debut successful album Kerkko Koskinen Kollektiivi that topped the Finnish Albums Chart

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. Vesala soon left afterwards. The follow up album by the groupis titled 2 and was released in 2014.
Koskinen was married to Anni Sinnemäki from 1996 to 2001. From 2004 to 2008, he was married to actress and singer Pihla Viitala.

List of newspaper comic strips

The following is a list of comic strips. Dates after names indicate the time frames when the strips appeared. There is usually a fair degree of accuracy about a start date, but because of rights being transferred or the very gradual loss of appeal of a particular strip, the termination date is sometimes uncertain. In the event a strip has its own page, the originator of the strip is listed. Otherwise, all creators who worked on a strip are listed. Note that many of characters appeared in both strip and comic book format as well as in other media.
The word Reuben after a name identifies winners of the National Cartoonists Society’s Reuben Award for Outstanding Cartoonist of the Year, but many of leading strip artists worked in the years before the first Reuben and Billy DeBeck Awards in 1946

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Webcomics are comic strips that exist only on the World Wide Web and are not created primarily for newspapers or magazines. Primary sites for webcomics are Modern Tales, Serializer and KeenSpot.

The following lists include only newspaper comic strips:

Orbivirus

The genus Orbivirus is a member of the Reoviridae family, in the subfamily Sedoreovirinae. Unlike the other reoviruses, orbiviruses are arboviruses. This genus currently contains 22 species (including the type species Bluetongue virus) and at least 130 different serotypes. Orbiviruses can infect and replicate within a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Orbiviruses are named after their characteristic doughnut shaped capsomers (Orbi in Latin means ring).
Many orbiviruses are transmitted by ticks or haematophagus insect vectors (Culicoides, mosquitoes and sand flies) and have a wide host range that includes cattle, goats and sheep, wild ruminants, equids, camelids, marsupials, sloths, bats, birds, large canine and feline carnivores and humans.
The three economically most important orbiviruses are Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus all of which are transmitted by Culicoides species.

The virons are non-enveloped particles that are between 70-80 nm in diameter. The virus particles are spherical in appearance and have icosahedral symmetry. An outer and an inner capsid layer surround the genome, and have T=13 and T=2 symmetry, respectively. The viron is constructed of two concentric protein shells, the sub-core layer which contain 120 copies/particle of the VP3 and the core-surface layer composed of 780 copies/particle of the VP7. VP1, VP4 and VP6 are minor enzymatic proteins that are packaged along with the ten genome segments within the central space of the virus core. The orbivirus outer-capsid layer is composed of two additional structural proteins (VP2 and VP5) which mediate cell-attachment and penetration during initiation of infection. The outer-capsid proteins are more variable than the core proteins and most of the non-structural proteins and the specificity of their reactions with neutralising antibodies determines the virus serotype.
These viruses have double stranded RNA genomes and therefore are classified as Class III viruses. Their genome is linear and is segmented into 10 segments of various lengths. One copy of each gene segment is packaged per virion. In most cases each gene segment encodes a single open reading frame (ORF). The genome encodes 7 major structural proteins (VP1-VP7) and 3 major non structural proteins (NS1-NS3). Exceptions to the one gene one protein rule are segment 9 (Seg-9) and segment 10 (Seg-10) both of which encode two nearly identical proteins initiated from in-phase AUG codons close together near the upstream termini (VP6 and VP6a encoded by Seg-9: NS3 and NS3a encoded by Seg-10)
An open reading frame spans almost the entire length of genome segment-9 and encodes VP6 (the viral helicase). A second open reading frame (OrfX) is also present on this segment and encodes a fourth non structural protein (NS4), which was predicted from sequence analysis of various orbiviruses including Segment 9 of Great Island virus which contained a long NS4 ORF (approximately 21kDa). The existence of NS4 was experimentally confirmed in both insect-borne and tick-borne orbiviruses in 2011.
NS1 is the most abundant protein in BTV infected cells. It forms tubules that may be involved in translocation of progeny virus particles to the cell membrane. NS2 is phosphorylated by cellular kinases and is an important matrix protein of the granular viral inclusion bodies that form within the cytoplasm of infected cells. These viral inclusion bodies act as the centres of viral replication. The membrane glycoproteins NS3 and NS3a are expressed in large amounts in insect cells but not in mammalian cells. They are involved in the release of progeny virus particles from infected cells and may be involved in determination of both vector competence and virulence.
Many orbiviruses preferentially infect vascular endothelial cells. Orbiviruses enter the host cell by endocytosis and the outer capsid is subsequently removed. The whole cycle of viral replication takes place within the cytoplasm of the host cell. Transcription of the viral genome into mRNA occurs within the core particle and mRNA is translated into proteins using the host cell ribosomes. Viral proteins are synthesized 2–14 days after initial infection. New virons self-assemble within the cytoplasm and are then released from the host cell by budding. During the budding process they transiently acquire a lipid envelope which can be detected for a short period of time following their release but this is subsequently lost.
Orbiviruses primarily cause diseases in animals. The different Orbivirus species have different host specificities. Orbiviruses are vector-borne pathogens transmitted between vertebrate hosts by vectors such as mosquitoes, midges, gnats, sandflies and ticks. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an Orbivirus that causes bluetongue disease in sheep, cattle, goats and wild ungulates. BTV has been in the forefront of molecular studies for last three decades and now represents one of the best understood viruses at the molecular and structural levels. Other species of Orbiviruses are responsible for other diseases of animals such as African Horse sickness and Equine encephalosis virus.
Group: dsRNA

This genus has been divided into several (at least 14) serogroups. The serogroups have been divided in some cases into subgroups. A number of these viruses have yet to be assigned to a serogroup. The serogroups are differentiated on the basis of a fourfold or greater difference in antibody based tests. These tests include ELISAs and complement fixation tests.
There are currently 22 recognized virus species as well as 13 unassigned viruses in this genus
Species (with constituent viruses):
These viruses are known to be transmitted by midges (Culicoides), mosquitoes and ticks. Those viruses transmitted by a particular type of vector seem to be related both genetically and serologically. These groups are
Midge vector group:
Mosquito vector group:
Tick vector group:
The vector(s) of the St Croix river virus are not known and based on its genome sequence this virus does not appear to group with any other vector group.
The tick group may be ancestral to the other groups

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In 1719, African horse sickness virus caused the first major recorded orbivirus epidemic, killing 1,500 animals. The most historically significant outbreak of orbivirus occurred in 1854-1855, when AHSV infected 70,000 horses. AHSV was discovered to be a virus in 1900 and bluetongue disease followed shortly thereafter in 1905. Outbreaks have occurred sporadically in the 20th and 21st centuries.

Berlin Hermannstraße station

Berlin Hermannstraße is a railway station in the Neukölln district of Berlin. It is served by the S-Bahn lines S41, S42, S45, S46 and S47 and the U-Bahn line U8, of which it is the southern terminus. It was formerly also possible to transfer there to the Neukölln-Mittenwalde railway line, which is now only used for goods traffic.

Hermannstraße was on the route of the first segment of the Berlin Ringbahn to open, on 15 November 1877 (with passenger service beginning on 1 January 1878), but the closest station was Rixdorf, today Berlin-Neukölln (the locality changed its name in 1912). The Hermannstraße station opened on 1 February 1899, as one of several suburban stations added during the enlargement of the ring line to 4 tracks.
Initially the only access was at the east end of the station, via a small building with a red-tiled roof. In 1910 a second entrance on Siegfriedstraße was added. For 29 years the station was served by steam trains. After the creation of Greater Berlin in 1920, electrification to create the S-Bahn system began in 1924; the Ringbahn was fully incorporated on 6 November 1928.
In 1895 a committee of residents of Mittenwalde formed a committee to construct a railway from Mittenwalde to Rixdorf, since existing rail routes were not conveniently located. Finding the cost prohibitive, they partnered with Vering & Waechter, a company which was at the time developing rail lines throughout Germany. On 23 February 1899, the Rixdorf-Mittenwalder Eisenbahn Aktiengesellschaft was founded; it still exists today. Vering & Waechter, given the responsibility for planning and construction, mapped out a 27 km route from North Mittenwalde to Hermannstraße with 7 intermediate stations: Brusendorf, Groß Kienitz, Selchow, Schönefeld, Rudow, Buckow and Britz. After the Ringbahn station was built, the plans were changed and the Hermannstraße terminus of the line became a transfer point and the Britz station the operating centre.
The operating licence for the line was granted on 21 July 1899, and it opened on 28 September 1900. 4 years later it was extended southwards to Schöneiche Plan. When Rixdorf became Neukölln in 1912, the line became the Neukölln-Mittenwalder Eisenbahn (Neukölln – Mittenwalde Railway).
During World War II the Mittenwalde line was heavily used for transporting both munitions and passengers, reaching a peak of over 1 million tonnes and 3 million passengers in 1942/43.
The Hermannstraße S-Bahn station was not damaged during the bombing of Berlin, but the entrance was severely damaged during the Battle for Berlin and that stretch of the Ringbahn was closed from April 1945 until 18 June 1945.
The Mittenwalde line was closed until 17 May 1945, when the bridge over the Teltow Canal was repaired by the Red Army. In September 1946, the Soviet occupying administration took possession of the portion of the line outside Berlin under eminent domain and transferred its operation to the Brandenburg State Railways, and in the Berlin Blockade of 1948/49, the line was severed at the boundary with the American sector. 11.5 km of line with some sidings within Berlin remained unaffected, and the company had constructed a 5 km extension to Tempelhof Airfield in 1936, which could now be used to transport coal flown there in the Berlin Airlift, avoiding the East Berlin-controlled Deutsche Reichsbahn.
S-Bahn operation continued under the Deutsche Reichsbahn during and after the blockade, but was boycotted in West Berlin. In 1961, the year contact between East and West Berlin was severed, the Siegfriedstraße entrance to the Hermannstraße station was closed. The destroyed main entrance was under restoration until 1968/69, but in 1971 was demolished and replaced with a modern building, which opened in June 1973; the Siegfriedstraße entrance, reopened during this work, was then closed and it was demolished 3 years later. After the September 1980 strike of West Berlin S-Bahn workers, the Reichsbahn almost completely closed the S-Bahn in West Berlin, including the Ringbahn.
The Neukölln – Mittenwalde line, in contrast, profited from increased goods traffic after the West Berlin power company, Bewag, built a power plant at Rudow. Within the city, its passenger stations were demolished, while outside the city, in the GDR, the rails were taken up but the station buildings remained.
The Reichsbahn transferred the S-Bahn to Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (Berlin Transport) in 1984, and after public enthusiasm for it increased

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, preparations began in 1989 for gradually reopening the Ringbahn beginning in 1992.
The fall of the Berlin wall that November and the ensuing German reunification changed the plans: the stretch of Ringbahn to be initially reopened was extended into the former East Berlin and the reopening deferred to 1993. The Hermannstraße station was completely rebuilt in a new position under the bridge where Hermannstraße crosses the S-Bahn cutting, so that hardly any traces of the historic station remain. The new station has two entrance buildings on Hermannstraße, which were painted blue and green to draw attention to the connection between the S-Bahn and U-Bahn Line 8 at the station, which was finally realised after some 60 years with the opening of the U-Bahn station on 13 July 1996.
Service on the western portion of the Ringbahn was ceremonially relaunched on 17 December 1993, over a stretch of line including the Hermannstraße station. The station is now served by three S-Bahn lines which originate to the southeast of the city: S47, S46 from Königs Wusterhausen and S45 from Schönefeld Airport, plus the two Ringbahn lines, S41 and S42. A new two-track turning area at Hermannstraße is the terminus of the S47.
Also since German reunification, the Mittenwalde line became the route by which the city’s household waste is conveyed in containers from the Berliner Stadtreinigung (Berlin Sanitation) depot on the Teltow Canal to the Hermannstraße terminus of the line, now known as Güterbahnhof Neukölln, Neukölln Goods Station, where it is transferred to Deutsche Bahn goods trains. In December 2005, however, the district of Neukölln decided to convert unused track area in the goods station to industrial use; the Neukölln-Mittenwalder Eisenbahn is to wind up its operations there at some point in the future.
In 1927, seven years after Neukölln like many other surrounding towns became part of Greater Berlin, the city opened the first segment of what was then called Line D of the U-Bahn, today’s U8. Over the next 3 years, the line was extended as far south as Leinestraße. It had been the intention since the first conception of the line in 1910 for it to connect with the S-Bahn at Hermannstraße. Work began in 1929 and was scheduled to be completed in March 1930, but was halted by the economic crisis. Finally in 1931 the City of Berlin cancelled the project. By then the tunnel from Leinestraße (the longest tunnel segment excavated that year) and about one third of the platform at the new station had been constructed. The stairways to the street were in place and were capped with concrete.
In 1940, the unfinished station was used as an air raid shelter; because it is located under the S-Bahn cutting, it is unusually deep underground. There are still signs on the wall from this period. After the construction of the Berlin wall in 1961, the West Berlin Senate did not pursue the plans for an extension, since West Berliners were boycotting the GDR-run S-Bahn and there was thus no longer demand for a transfer point between the U-Bahn and it. Berlin Transport laid rails in the tunnel and used it to store disused trains.
The situation changed with German reunification and it was decided to complete the extension and open the Hermannstraße U-Bahn station. The scheduled reopening of the Ringbahn on 17 December 1993 created time pressure, because work on the U-Bahn station had to begin before then. The work included renovation of the existing tunnel and partial platform, construction of the remainder of the platform and the creation of a 320 m long turn-around. In addition, means of transfer between the station and the S-Bahn station above had to be created, and stairwells for a planned regional station. In the course of the work, the trains which had been parked there in the 1960s were discovered. U-Bahn buffs were delighted that one of the discoveries was an antique BI train.
The opening of the station, the 168th in the Berlin U-Bahn system, was celebrated on 13 July 1996. Like almost all Berlin U-Bahn stations constructed in recent decades, the Hermannstraße station was designed by Rainer Rümmler. It was his last design before he retired. In this case he was strongly influenced by the stations to the north, designed by Alfred Grenander, which led to a very sparse station lined with turquoise tiles. The signs for the air raid shelter were retained behind glass as testaments to the past.
Coordinates: 52°28′05″N 13°25′52″E / 52.468°N 13.431°E / 52.468; 13.431

Ansted, West Virginia

Ansted is a town in Fayette County in the U.S. state of West Virginia. The population was 1,404 at the 2010 census. It is situated on high bluffs along U.S. Route 60 on a portion of the Midland Trail a National Scenic Byway near Hawk’s Nest overlooking the New River far below.

The area of what is now southern West Virginia was long a hunting ground for nomadic tribes of Native-Americans before the arrival of Europeans in the 17th century. Around 1790, the area now known as Ansted was settled by a group of Baptists who did not hold legal title to the land. These people were known as “squatters,” and built the Hopewell Baptist Church nearby. In 1792, a 400-acre (1.6 km²) tract of land in the area was patented to Charles Skaggs.
Named in honor of the Marquis de la Fayette, a major hero of the American Revolutionary War, Fayette County, Virginia was created in 1831. The first county court was held that same year at Miles Manser’s general store which stood nearby Ansted’s current location along the James River and Kanawha Turnpike, an early roadway built to connect the canals on the James and Kanawha Rivers. The area was known at that time as Mountain Cove. At various times, it has also been known as Woodville, New Haven, and Westlake.
During the American Civil War, the area of Fayette County was a focus of both Union and Confederate efforts. The burning of Gauley Bridge was a spectacular event long-remembered in the community. During the winter of 1861-62, the Chicago Gray Dragoons of the Union Army were based at the Halfway House (Tyree Tavern) in what is now Ansted. At this time, Confederate General Robert E. Lee maintained headquarters on nearby Sewell Mountain. The Chicago Dragoons had a strong religious orientation and ties to the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) of Chicago. Many Union troops felt they were fighting the moral issue of slavery while although many citizens of Fayette County were more sympathetic to the “states rights” issues of the Confederacy. The area became part of the new State of West Virginia when it was formed in 1863 as part of the Union. Local lore speaks of romances between the local girls and the young soldiers from Illinois. Some of these young couples married and built homes and raised their families in the Mountain State at the end of hostilities. It is also the burial site of Stonewall Jackson’s mother, Julia Neale Jackson in Westlake Cemetery.
After the Civil War, the United States renewed its westward expansion. Around 1872, the new Chesapeake & Ohio Railway was built along both sides of the narrow New River valley nearby creating a through route to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Hawk’s Nest Station, just below Ansted, was the site of the final spike in this portion of the C&O on January 29, 1873.
Also in 1873, the town of Ansted was created. It was named after a British scientist and geologist, Dr. David T. Ansted (1814–1880), who in 1853, mapped out the nearby seams of high grade bituminous coal and once owned the land the town now occupies. The town was laid out by former Confederate Colonel George W. Imboden, a wealthy lawyer.
In the period following the Civil War, Imboden began speculating in coal lands in southern West Virginia and attracted British capitalists interested in investing. Dr. Ansted, a noted geologist, had been engaged to investigate the region’s potential for coal deposits, and his report far exceeded Imboden’s best expectations. Ansted and Imboden bought more than a thousand acres (4 km²) of coal and timber land on Gauley Mountain between Hawks Nest and the town of Westlake, which became the present-day town of Ansted. They organized the Gauley-Kanawha Coal Company, Ltd., in 1872 and in 1873 opened a mine about 1,000 feet (300 m) above the river and 300 feet (91 m) below the summit of Gauley Mountain. The company changed its name to Hawk’s Nest Coal Company, Ltd., in 1875, and was reorganized in bankruptcy in 1889 as the Gauley Mountain Coal Company.
Imboden’s second wife, Angie, renamed their family home “Contentment” because she and her family spent many happy hours there. Contentment had been built about 1830 on the James River and Kanawha Turnpike in the west end of what is now Ansted, and they acquired it in 1872. Colonel Imboden, who was Ansted’s first mayor, helped stimulate the growth of the town’s businesses.
Another of the town’s more well-known residents was a protégé of Dr. Ansted, William Nelson Page, (1854–1932). A civil engineer and mining manager, he was one of the energetic and successful men who helped develop West Virginia’s rich bituminous coal fields in the late 19th and early 20th century. Page was co-founder and builder of the Virginian Railway. In 1898, on a knoll in the middle of town, Page had a palatial mansion built by Gauley Mountain Coal Company carpenters, where he and his wife Emma Gilham Page raised their four children. Like Colonel Imboden, William Page also served as a mayor of Ansted for 10 years, although his title of “Colonel” was honorific and did not result from technically attaining that rank in military service, although he was active in the West Virginia State Militia. The railroad towns of Page and Pageton in West Virginia were named for him.
Ansted had railroad service from 1874 until 1972. In 1874, mine owners had a narrow-gauge railroad built from Hawk’s Nest Station up the ravine of Mill Creek. A saddleback locomotive was used. In 1889, the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) purchased the narrow gauge railroad and contracted with William Page to do the work to upgrade the line to standard gauge, which was completed on August 20, 1890.
The (C&O) operated the new branch line, which was known as the Hawks Nest Subdivision from 1890 until 1972. It connected with the New River Subdivision main line at Hawks Nest Station and consisted of 3.44 miles (5.54 km) of line to and beyond the town of Ansted. The line had one of the steepest grades of any C&O branch, a 4.17% grade. C & O did not desire to transport passengers on the line, but was ordered to do so by the State of West Virginia

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. Passenger service was finally operated on the branch line following a decision of the United States Supreme Court in Chesapeake & Ohio Railway Company v. Public Service Commission of State of West Virginia, 242 U.S. 603 (1917), and continued until sometime in the 1930s. The freight rail service on the branch line ended in 1972 and the tracks were removed.
Today, the Ansted-Hawks Nest Rail Trail follows the route from the Town of Ansted down the steep mountainside to the area of Hawks Nest Station in the New River Valley. The trail is 2.2 miles (3.5 km) in length and terminates where the aerial tram from Hawks Nest Lodge departs their passengers.
Today, Angie and George Imboden’s 1830 home, Contentment, still stands. The Contentment Historical Complex serves as headquarters for the Fayette County Historical Society. It features a historical museum and restored one-room schoolhouse, with historic furnishings and household items dating to mid-nineteenth century.
The mansion of William and Emma Page and their family on the hilltop in Ansted also still stands as evidence of the once-thriving coal business. Later occupied by the family of Dr. Gene Vawter, and still in use as a private residence, the Page-Vawter House is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Other historical landmarks include the Halfway House, the former Tyree’s Tavern which was headquarters of the Chicago Gray Dragoons during the American Civil War, and the African American Heritage Family-Tree Museum, which helps African-Americans trace their roots.
The grave of Julia Neale Jackson, mother of Confederate General Thomas Stonewall Jackson, is located in Westlake Cemetery in Ansted. The marker was placed more than 35 years after her death by Captain Thomas R. Ranson, one of the soldiers of the Stonewall Brigade, an act considered symbolic of the affection of his troops for their fallen leader.
Ansted has the distinction of having Hawk’s Nest State Park located within its borders. The park at Hawk’s Nest features a small museum and gift shop, an aerial tram ride to the New River Gorge, and spectacular overlooks including the famous “Lover’s Leap”.
U.S. Route 60 threads through the community as part of the Midland Trail, a National Scenic Byway.
Ansted hosts the Country Roads Festival each September and the Festival of Lights over the Christmas holiday season, a time when the Fayetteville theater produces an annual holiday play. Ansted also hosts annual PRO-AM Street luge competition. Mystery Hole is a more lighthearted attraction.
A war memorial was erected in 2007 through donations that has the name, rank, and period served of military veterans
Ansted is located at 38°8′10″N 81°6′7″W / 38.13611°N 81.10194°W / 38.13611; -81.10194 (38.136029, -81.101951). According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.67 square miles (4.33 km2), of which, 1.66 square miles (4.30 km2) is land and 0.01 square miles (0.03 km2) is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 1,404 people, 589 households, and 395 families residing in the town. The population density was 845.8 inhabitants per square mile (326.6/km2). There were 697 housing units at an average density of 419.9 per square mile (162.1/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 96.7% White, 2.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% from other races, and 0.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population.
There were 589 households of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 32.9% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.80.
The median age in the town was 47 years. 19.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 6.4% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 21.5% were from 25 to 44; 29.2% were from 45 to 64; and 23.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 47.2% male and 52.8% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,576 people, 631 households, and 436 families residing in the town. The population density was 940.3 inhabitants per square mile (362.2/km²). There were 708 housing units at an average density of 422.4 per square mile (162.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 96.13% White, 3.17% African American, 0.13% Native American, and 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.51% of the population.
There were 631 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the town the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 23.7% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 85.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.9 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $25,028, and the median income for a family was $28,938. Males had a median income of $25,682 versus $17,500 for females. The per capita income for the town was $15,671. About 20.7% of families and 23.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.5% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over.

Vachellia farnesiana

Vachellia farnesiana, also known as Acacia farnesiana, and previously Mimosa farnesiana, commonly known as needle bush, is so named because of the numerous thorns distributed along its branches. The native range of V. farnesiana is uncertain. While the point of origin is Mexico and Central America, the species has a pantropical distribution incorporating northern Australia and southern Asia. It remains unclear whether the extra-American distribution is primarily natural or anthropogenic. It is deciduous over part of its range, but evergreen in most locales. The species grows to a height of up to 8 m (26 ft) and has a lifespan of about 25–50 years.
The plant has been recently[when?] spread to many new locations as a result of human activity and it is considered a serious weed in Fiji, where locals call it Ellington’s curse. It thrives in dry, saline, or sodic soils. It is also a serious pest plant in parts of Australia, including north-west New South Wales, where it now infests thousands of acres of grazing country.
The taxon name farnesiana is specially named after Odoardo Farnese (1573–1626) of the notable Italian Farnese family which, after 1550

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, under the patronage of cardinal Alessandro Farnese, maintained some of the first private European botanical gardens in Rome, in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under stewardship of these Farnese Gardens this acacia was imported to Italy. The plant itself was brought to the Farnese Gardens from the Caribbean and Central America, where it originates. Analysis of essences of the floral extract from this plant, long used in perfumery, resulted in the name for the sesquiterpene biosynthetic chemical farnesol, found as a basic sterol precursor in plants, and cholesterol precursor in animals.

The bark is used for its tannin content. Highly tannic barks are common in general to acacias, extracts of many being are used in medicine for this reason. (See cutch).
The leaves are used as a tamarind flavoring for chutneys and the pods are roasted to be used in sweet and sour dishes.
The flowers are processed through distillation to produce a perfume called Cassie. It is widely used in the perfume industry in Europe. Flowers of the plant provide the perfume essence from which the biologically important sesquiterpenoid farnesol is named.
Scented ointments from Cassie are made in India.
The foliage is a significant source of forage in much of its range, with a protein content around 18%.
The concentration of tannin in the seed pods is about 23%.
The seeds of V. farnesiana are not toxic to humans and are a valuable food source for people throughout the plant’s range. The ripe seeds are put through a press to make oil for cooking. Nonetheless, an anecdotal report has been made that in Brazil some people use the seeds of V. farnesiana to eliminate rabid dogs. This is attributed to an unnamed toxic alkaloid.
The tree makes good forage for bees.
A black pigment is extracted from the bark and fruit.
The bark and the flowers are the parts of the tree most used in traditional medicine. V. farnesiana has been used in Colombia to treat malaria, and the extract from the tree bark and leaves has shown some efficacy against the malarial pathogen Plasmodium falciparum in animal models . Indigenous Australians have used the roots and bark of the tree to treat diarrhea and diseases of the skin. The tree’s leaves can also be rubbed on the skin to treat skin diseases.[unreliable source?][medical citation needed]
Farnese wattle, dead finish, mimosa wattle, mimosa bush, prickly mimosa bush, prickly Moses, needle bush, north-west curara, sheep’s briar, sponge wattle, sweet acacia, thorny acacia, thorny feather wattle, wild briar, huisache, cassie, cascalotte, cassic, mealy wattle, popinac, sweet briar, Texas huisache, aroma, (Bahamas) cashia, (Bahamas, USA) opoponax, sashaw, (Belize) Aroma amarilla, (Cuba) suntich, (Jamaica) sassie-flower, iron wood, cassie flower, honey-ball, casha tree, casha, (Virgin Islands) cassia, (Fiji) Ellington’s curse, cushuh, (St. Maarten), huizache (Mexico).

Guy Padgett

Guy V. Padgett III (born 1977) is a former American municipal politician from Wyoming. A member of the Casper, Wyoming City Council from 2003 to 2009, he was mayor of Casper from 2005 to 2006. He is a Democrat.
He came out as gay while on the city council in 2003, becoming the state’s first openly gay elected official. Despite Wyoming’s reputation for being politically conservative and the murder of Casper native Matthew Shepard in nearby Laramie in 1998, Padgett was unanimously elected mayor by the council in 2005. He reportedly enjoyed great popularity among his constituents

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, including support from prominent Republican Party politicians such as Alan K. Simpson. In addition he was, at 27, Casper’s youngest mayor.
He was re-elected to the city council in 2006; he resigned his seat June 30, 2009, upon admission to a master’s degree program at the University of Denver’s Josef Korbel School of International Studies. His resignation left only one openly gay elected official in Wyoming: state representative Cathy Connolly (D–Laramie).

Virus (Hypocrisy album)

Virus is the tenth studio album by the death metal band Hypocrisy, released on September 19, 2005. This is the first Hypocrisy album recorded with their new drummer, Horgh (Reidar Horghagen), from the black metal band Immortal and second guitarist, Andreas Holma. A video was made for the song “Scrutinized”.
Early pressings of the CD were sold with a thirteen-song limited edition live DVD, with 12 songs recorded in Strasbourg on Hypocrisy’s 2004 tour as support of Cannibal Corpse, and from a different show they play the song “Total Disaster” by Destruction along with the band’s vocalist and bass guitar player Marcel ‘Schmier’ Schirmer. Some CDs have a bonus track, “Watch Out”, which appears to be a demo of a song recorded in 2000.
Some early pressings have an error where a scratch sound can be heard on tracks 6 and 11. The Nuclear Blast record label said it would mail a replacement to anyone who had one of these glitched discs.

All songs written and composed by Hypocrisy. 
Limited edition DVD bonus tracks: Tracks 1-12 were recorded in Strasbourg on August 4, 2004. Track thirteen was recorded at the Bang Your Head!

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!! festival in 2003.

xApps

xApp (SAP AG Composite Application), is a collective term applied to software products built following the SAP xApps convention and running on a SAP NetWeaver application server. Including a range of software products from SAP AG, solutions by SAP partners and customer made composite applications. xApps are commonly targeted at specific industries or are geared towards vertical applications common across a range of industries. xApps typically have a smaller footprint than some of the company’s other business applications such as MySAP. xApp is the general term for applications based on the SAP ESOA, i.e. applications using SAP enterprise SOA services.
As of October 2006, SAP offered xApps targeted at Product lifecycle management, supply chain management

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, manufacturing intelligence and other areas.
Example xApps provided by SAP include:
SAP xApps are composite applications which can combine Web services and data from multiple systems. The application architecture is defined by the SAP Composite Application Framework within the SAP NetWeaver platform. The framework includes the methodology, tools, and run-time environment to develop composite applications. It provides a consistent object model and allows developers to build composite applications with a rich user interface, which can access multiple other heterogeneous applications via services.
Some xApps are relatively new additions to the SAP product offering and may thus be less tightly integrated with SAP’s common platforms such as NetWeaver. As a result, many xApps can be deployed by firms who do not currently run other SAP applications[citation needed].