Jommerhönschen

51.3032861111117.1391055555556280Koordinaten: 51° 18′ 12″ N, 7° 8′ 21″ O
Lage von Jommerhönschen in Wuppertal
Jommerhönschen ist eine Hofschaft im Norden der bergischen Großstadt Wuppertal.
Die Hofschaft liegt im Westen des Wohnquartiers Dönberg im Stadtbezirk Uellendahl-Katernberg auf einer Höhe von 280 Metern über Normalnull an der Stadtgrenze zu Velbert-Neviges. Die Höfe Bruch, Grüntal, Brunnenhäuschen, Peckeshütt, Schnappbrücke, Junkernbruch und Schimmelshaus sind unmittelbar angrenzend.
Weitere benachbarte Orte sind neben Dönberg die Höfe und Ortslagen Schmürsches, Mutzberg, Siebeneick, Saurenhaus, Knorrsiepen, Langenkamp, Schell, Schmiede, Ibach und Kobeshäuschen sowie die Velberter Ortsteile Staudt, Straße und Lippgeskotten.
Im 19. Jahrhundert gehörte Jommerhönschen zu den Außenortschaften der Kirchengemeinde Dönberg in der Stadt Hardenberg-Neviges, die 1935 in Neviges umbenannt wurde. Damit gehörte es von 1816 bis 1861 zum Kreis Elberfeld und ab 1861 zum alten Kreis Mettmann. Mit der Kommunalreform von 1929 wurde der südliche Teil von Dönberg abgespalten und mit weiteren, außerhalb von Dönberg liegenden Nevigeser Ortschaften in die neu gegründete Stadt Wuppertal eingemeindet, der Rest Dönbergs mit Jommerhönschen verblieb zunächst bei Neviges. Durch die nordrhein-westfälische Gebietsreform kam Neviges mit Beginn des Jahres 1975 zur Stadt Velbert und das erneut geteilte Dönberg wurde bis auf die nördlichen Außenortschaften, die bei Velbert verblieben, ebenfalls in Wuppertal eingemeindet.

1984 South-East Asia Cup

The First South-East Asian Cricket Tournament was held in Dhaka in January 1984. Two teams from the host country were joined by teams from Singapore and Hong Kong. The Bangladesh national team won the trophy, and thus qualified for the 1986 Asia Cup in Sri Lanka.
The organizers suffered an early setback when Malaysia, one of the stronger cricketing nations of the Far East, withdrew at the last moment. Apart from Dhaka, Chittagong and Mymensingh hosted some games. The Bangladesh national team, however, played all its fixtures at the capital.
As the scores suggest, the Bangladesh national team was far superior to any of its opposition. Yousuf Rahman and Gazi Ashraf dominated the top order batting. In the latter matches, Belayet Hossain Belal and Nehal Hasnain came good. In contrast the two veterans, skipper Raquibul Hasan & Omar Khaled Rumy were very disappointing. The bowling was dominated by the seamers, young Golam Faruq impressed with his hat-trick against Singapore. Jahangir Shah came good in the final.
The Bangladesh Tigers (led by Sadrul Anam) mostly included young players; players like Minhajul Abedin, Azhar Hossain, Athar Ali Khan, Gholam Nousher, Wahidul Gani, etc., who would serve Bangladesh cricket with great distinction over the next decade or so. Rafiqul Alam, the most experienced player of side, enjoyed a good tournament with both bat and ball. The highlight of his performance was a brilliant 129 against hapless Singapore. He shared a record 208 run partnership for the 5th wicket with WK batsamn Hafizur Rahman Sani(75). Hafiz impressed with both his keeping and batting, and was soon promoted to the national team duty. Minhajul Abedin Nannu performed consistently. At his hometown Chittagong, he delighted his fans with a classy 44 against Hong Kong in the 1st game. In the bowling department, brilliant, but often erratic leggie Wahidul Gani was consistently amongst the wickets.
Hong Kong got better and better as the tournament progressed. Peter Wood was their most consistent batsman. Teenager Simon Miles showed his promise with a hundred against Singapore. Chris Collins was the fastest bowler in the tournament, and in almost all the matches he gave his side early breakthroughs. Collin Swan and Jenkins also bowled well, and Peter Andersson impressed as an allrounder. Singapore was the weakest team in the tournament, and ended the cup without any wins.

Coleraine College

Coordinates: 55°08′02″N 6°40′59″W / 55.134°N 6.683°W / 55.134; -6.683 Coleraine College is a secondary school in Coleraine, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland. It was formed by an amalgamation of the Coleraine Boys’ Secondary school and Coleraine Girls’ Secondary School and became Coleraine College in September 2001. The headmaster is Mr Marsh

The college’s mission statement is “To achieve success for all, the college provides a supportive environment delivering innovative, challenging learning experiences. As part of the local learning community, we promote partnerships, positive relationships and tolerance.” The College aims to equip young students for FE College, Sixth Form and towards University. Skills taught include partnership and team skills.
In preparation for the amalgamation a £7 million refurbishment of the Girls’ School was carried out.
The school is situated on 32 acres (130,000 m2) of land. However, the school is split between two sites, set well back from any main road, and this encourages vandalism which by March 2005 had cost thousands of pounds.
The school was mentioned in the House of Commons in July 2006 when the Northern Ireland Minister Maria Eagle, in answer to a question from Gregory Campbell, stated that the main buildings were then 49 years old.
The Education and Training Inspectorate carried out a follow-up inspection in February 2006 in which they stated that “The school has some strengths in aspects of its educational and pastoral provision that can be built upon. The areas for improvement need to be addressed urgently if the school is to meet effectively, the needs of all the pupils.”
However, in a further follow-up inspection in January 2007 they found that the school had made a range of substantial improvements in the past year.
Student Gordon Patton was a member of the Northern Ireland under-18 football squad in 2006-07.

Donald Wilson (general)

World War I:
World War II:
Donald Wilson (25 September 1892 – 21 June 1978) was a United States Army Air Forces general during World War II.
Wilson enlisted in the Maryland National Guard as a private in 1916 and served with it on the Mexican border and the Western Front during World War I before transferring to the United States Army Air Service. After the war, he obtained a regular commission. Already qualified as an aerial observer, he became a pilot in 1922. For many years he was an influential instructor at the Air Corps Tactical School. Wilson became a leading theorist who embraced the doctrine that strategic bombing was the most important aspect of air power. He argued that by attacking vulnerabilities, whole industries could be brought to a halt without necessarily having to destroy all of the factories. The doctrine which Wilson expounded later became the basis for AWPD-1, the Army Air Forces’ strategic war plan developed in 1941.
During World War II, Wilson served as Chief of the Personnel Division (G-l) of the War Department General Staff. He became Chief of Staff of the Fifth Air Force in September 1942, before returning to the United States in 1944 to become Assistant Chief of Staff, United States Army Air Forces for Organization, Commitments and Requirements. For a time he was acting Chief of Staff of Army Air Forces. In February 1945, Wilson was present at the Battle of Iwo Jima as an official Army Air Forces observer. In June 1945, he assumed command of the Air Force Proving Ground Command.
After the war, Wilson served as a member of the Gerow Board, which examined the military educational system and instituted a series of long-lasting reforms. In 1947, he was diagnosed with neurasthenia, and retired with the rank of major general.

Donald Wilson was born at Hiner’s Mill in Pendleton County, West Virginia on 25 September 1892, the third of seven children of John Hamilton Wilson and his wife Martha Jane, née Siple. John Wilson worked a number of odd jobs before becoming a mail carrier with the Baltimore Post Office in 1899. Donald was educated at Baltimore Polytechnic Institute. In 1910, he went to work as a surveyor for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
In February 1916, Wilson enlisted as a private in the Maryland National Guard and was posted to Company H, 5th Maryland Infantry. This unit was called to active duty at Laurel, Maryland in June 1916 for service on the Mexican border. It was based at Eagle Pass, Texas, and, like most National Guard units, supported but did not directly participate in the Pancho Villa Expedition, although it did occasionally cross the border into Mexico. Wilson was soon promoted to corporal, and later sergeant. The 5th Maryland Regiment returned to Maryland in February 1917.
The 5th Maryland Infantry was again called up in April 1917 following the declaration of war by the United States on the German Empire. Wilson was promoted to second lieutenant, effective 9 April 1917. He was posted to Company C, 5th Maryland Infantry. This time, the regiment moved to Camp McClellan, Alabama, where the 5th Maryland Infantry was absorbed into the 115th Infantry of the 29th Division on 1 October 1917. While at Camp McClellan, Wilson applied for training as an aerial observer but his request was not accepted. He was promoted to first lieutenant on 23 April 1918.
In June 1918, the 29th Division sailed from Hoboken, New Jersey to Brest, France. It travelled across France, entering the front line trenches in the Traubach-le-Bas sector. In France, Wilson once again applied for training as an aerial observer, in response to an appeal from American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) headquarters. This time, he was successful and in September 1918 he reported to the Air Service Concentration Barracks at Saint-Maixent. After training there, at Camp de Souge, and at Tours in November 1918, he was posted to the 2nd Corps Aeronautical School at Châtillon-sur-Seine. He was assigned to the 186th Aero Squadron at Weißenthurm (Weissenthurm) in May 1919, returned to the United States in July, and was discharged from the Army on 15 August 1919.
Wilson married Edna Taggert, the older sister of the wife of his best friend in Anniston, in a ceremony in her home in Pittsburgh. After a honeymoon in Miami, Florida, they settled in Baltimore. The couple eventually had two children: Teresa Jane, born in 1921, and Donald, born in 1923.
In 1920, Wilson applied for and received a Regular Army commission in the Air Service, into which he was commissioned as a first lieutenant on 1 July 1920. He was immediately advanced to captain and posted to the Observation School at Post Field, Oklahoma as a senior instructor. In 1922, he was sent to Carlstrom Field, Florida for primary pilot training and then to Kelly Field, Texas for advanced training. He also served there as an instructor in observation. From 1924 to 1927, he served in Washington, DC, in the Office of the Chief of the Air Service. This was followed by a two-year tour of duty in the Philippines as commander of the 2nd Observation Squadron.
On return to the United States in 1929, Wilson was posted to the Air Corps Tactical School at Langley Field, Virginia as an instructor. In 1931 the school moved to Maxwell Field, Alabama, where he was promoted to major on 1 February 1932. At the Air Corps Tactical School, Wilson became “one of the leading theorists … during the thirties”. Like Giulio Douhet, the school embraced the doctrine that strategic bombing was the most important aspect of air power. However, Wilson rejected those parts of Douhet’s doctrine that called for mass bombing of cities to break the morale of the enemy.
Instead, in preparing the training course, Wilson drew on his knowledge that critical breaks in railroad systems could disrupt the entire system. He theorized that this was equally true of other industries, that by attacking vulnerabilities, whole industries could be brought to a halt without necessarily having to destroy all the factories. The school identified transportation, steel, iron ore, and electric power as key economic industries. Wilson termed this doctrine “industrial web theory”.
The formulators of industrial web theory were relatively young junior officers, nearly all of them former reservists commissioned during or immediately after World War I. They viewed war in the abstract and admitted that they had no conclusive proof of their theories, but firmly believed that air power would dominate future warfare, after certain technological limitations had been overcome. Wilson was one of the nine key advocates, all instructors at the Tactical School, who became known as the “Bomber Mafia”: Wilson, Walker, Major Odas Moon (who died in 1937), and future generals Haywood S. Hansell, Laurence Kuter, Muir Fairchild, Robert Olds, Robert M. Webster, and Harold L. George. They espoused the doctrine in testimony to the Howell Commission on Federal Aviation in 1934, where it was used as an argument supporting the creation of an independent air force.
Once adopted as doctrine, industrial web theory had a host of effects. To obtain the required accuracy to hit pinpoint targets, bombing had to be done by daylight. An improved bombsight was required: the Norden bombsight Mark XV, appearing in 1931. Since a pursuit plane did not have the range to accompany the bombers, they had to be able to defend themselves, and new tactics called for formation flying to maximize the defense against hostile pursuit aircraft. The requirement for a better bomber led to the development of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. Wilson accepted the argument, most forcibly advanced by fellow instructor Kenneth Walker, that fighter aircraft did not have the range or speed to accompany bombers and probably could not shoot them down.
Wilson attended the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, graduating in June 1934. He considered the course to be a waste of time, “devoted in large part to the minutiae of ground officers’ duties” and “devoid of serious recognition of the airplane as an instrument of war.” After graduation he returned to the Air Corps Tactical School as Director of the Department of Air Tactics and Strategy, and was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 16 June 1936. From November 1938 to March 1939, he was also assistant commandant of the school.
Wilson was promoted to colonel on 16 October 1940. He returned to Washington, DC, where he served in the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps under Brigadier General Carl A. Spaatz, the chief of its Plans Division. In May 1940, he was transferred to the Plans Division of the War Department General Staff, which was headed by Brigadier General Leonard T. Gerow. Wilson was briefly chief of staff of Major General Walter H. Frank’s Third Air Force in Tampa, Florida but after only two months he was recalled to Washington to again serve on the War Department General Staff, this time in the G-1 (Personnel) Division, which was headed by Major General John H. Hilldring, a Command and General Staff School classmate. Wilson was promoted to brigadier general on 22 June 1942. In July 1942, Hilldring left to take over command of the 84th Infantry Division and Wilson became Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1.
In September 1942, Wilson became chief of staff of Major General George Kenney’s Allied Air Forces, Southwest Pacific Area and Fifth Air Force. Kenney had specifically requested General Henry Arnold to send Wilson to replace his chief of staff, Air Vice Marshal William Bostock, an RAAF officer. Wilson had known Kenney for many years and was on a first name basis with him; but while serving as his chief of staff, Wilson always addressed Kenney respectfully as “general”. The loss of Brigadier General Kenneth N. Walker over Rabaul in January 1943 and then his successor, Brigadier General Howard K. Ramey on a reconnaissance mission in March did not dampen Wilson’s desire to accompany a mission, and he tagged along as a passenger on a B-24 on a bombing raid on Rabaul. For his service in the Southwest Pacific, Wilson was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal.
In March 1944, Arnold asked for Kenney to return Wilson to work on his own staff. Wilson took the long way back, visiting the other war theatres in India, China, the Middle East, Italy and England. Wilson found the Army Air Forces Chief of Staff, Lieutenant General Barney Giles anxious for Wilson’s return so Giles could pay a visit to the war theatres. Wilson therefore found himself acting chief of staff. On Giles’ return, Wilson became Assistant Chief of Staff, Organization, Commitments and Requirements. In February 1945, Wilson was present at the Battle of Iwo Jima as an official Army Air Forces observer. He was promoted to major general on 17 March 1945.
On 25 June 1945, Wilson was replaced as assistant chief of staff by Major General Hoyt Vandenberg. For his service in the post, Wilson was awarded an oak leaf cluster to his Distinguished Service Medal. He was appointed to command the Air Force Proving Ground Command. At the time, some 22,000 airmen were assigned to this command.
Wilson served as a member of the Gerow Board, under his former chief, Lieutenant General Leonard T. Gerow, which examined the military educational system. The board met in Washington, DC, between 3 and 12 January 1946. Its final report to the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, recommended a system of five joint colleges, which would collectively form a National Security University under the direction of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In addition to the existing Industrial College and National War College, the board recommended the establishment of a joint administrative college, a joint intelligence college, and a Department of State college. Wilson went further and argued for the establishment of an air university, under the control of the Army Air Forces. Wilson’s proposal was accepted, and the Gerow Board’s recommendations resulted in a multi-tiered educational system still in effect today, with a Squadron Officer School for junior officers; an Air Command and Staff College for middle level officers; and an Air University for senior officers. All were created from the old Air Corps Tactical School. Beyond that, air officers would have to participate in joint training with their Army and Navy colleagues at the Industrial College, National War College and Joint Forces Staff College, the last two being creations of the Gerow Board. The first classes began at these two new institutions in September 1946 and January 1947 respectively.
In October 1946, Wilson was diagnosed with neurasthenia. Discharged on the grounds of disability with the rank of major general, he retired to Carmel, California, where he wrote and published his memoirs, entitled Wooing Peponi, in 1973. He died on 21 June 1978. His papers are in the The George C. Marshall Foundation.

Karl Schübel

Karl Schübel (* 26. November 1904 in Haiterbach; † 4. Dezember 2000 in Aalen) war ein deutscher Kommunalpolitiker in der Stadt Aalen. Er war Bürgermeister (NSDAP) von 1935 bis 1945 und Oberbürgermeister (parteilos) von 1950 bis 1975.
Der promovierte Verwaltungsjurist Schübel wurde im März 1935 vom Württembergischen Innenministerium als Nachfolger des damaligen Amtsverwesers Karl Barth (NSDAP) zum Bürgermeister von Aalen ernannt. Nach Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs wurde er im Juli 1945 von der amerikanischen Militärregierung als letzter der Bürgermeister, die im Dritten Reich amtiert hatten, abgesetzt. Am 18. Mai war in Aalen bereits ein Gemeindebeirat gebildet worden. Im Rahmen der Entnazifizierung wurde Schübel in Zweiter Instanz in die Gruppe der Mitläufer eingestuft.
Im Mai 1950 wurde Karl Schübel nach dem Tod des damaligen Amtsinhabers Otto Balluff zum Oberbürgermeister der Stadt Aalen gewählt. Bei seiner Wahl erhielt er unter drei Bewerbern 87 % der abgegebenen Stimmen bei einer Wahlbeteiligung von 81 %. Wahlplakate des Gegenkandidaten Peter Lahnstein waren aufgrund seiner jüdischen Abstammung mit antisemitischen Parolen beschmiert worden.
In den Jahren 1956 und 1968 wurde Karl Schübel ebenfalls mit überzeugender Mehrheit wiedergewählt. Wegen seiner vielfältigen Verdienste um die Stadt verlieh ihm der Gemeinderat 1974 das Ehrenbürgerrecht. 1975 trat Schübel in den Ruhestand.

Scottish baronial style

Le Scottish baronial style (littéralement « style seigneurial écossais » en anglais) est un mouvement architectural néogothique né en Écosse au début du XIXe siècle et populaire jusqu’à la Première Guerre mondiale.
Il se base sur des éléments des châteaux, manoirs et maisons-tours écossaises de la période de la Renaissance, comme le château de Craigievar et le château de Newark. Il s’agit d’une fusion de l’architecture néogothique appliquée aux châteaux, par Horace Walpole par exemple, avec l’ancienne architecture défensive écossaise. L’un des premiers exemples en est Abbotsford House, la demeure du romancier sir Walter Scott, construite pour lui sur les berges de la rivière Tweed dans les Scottish Borders.
Les bâtiments de ce style présentent fréquemment des tours cantonnées de poivrières. Les faîtes de la toiture ne sont pas tous au même niveau, les chéneaux crénelés imitant des remparts étant souvent interrompus par les pignons de façade des lucarnes. Si des fenêtres en lancette ornent tours et pignons de façade, de larges baies vitrées sont également courantes, leurs gâbles de baie étant eux aussi crénelés et amortis de pinacles. Porches, portiques et portes cochères sont imités des châteaux, des fausses herses pouvant être suspendues au-dessus de la porte principale, flanquée d’animaux héraldiques et de motifs architecturaux médiévaux.
Ce style fut particulièrement employé pour les bâtiments publics, comme l’Aberdeen Grammar School (en), et ne fut pas limité à l’Écosse, puisqu’il se propagea dans l’ensemble de l’Empire britannique, comme le Larnach Castle (en) près de Dunedin en Nouvelle-Zélande, la Casa Loma à Toronto en Ontario au Canada, le Craigdarroch Castle (en) à Victoria en Colombie-Britannique (Canada), ou le Fairmont Banff Springs à Banff en Alberta (Canada).

Dąbrowa-Moczydły

Dąbrowa-Moczydły – wieś w Polsce położona w województwie podlaskim, w powiecie wysokomazowieckim, w gminie Szepietowo.
W latach 1975-1998 miejscowość administracyjnie należała do województwa łomżyńskiego.

W 1673 r. we wsi mieszkali Dąbrowscy o przydomkach: Szalk, Krupik, Koślik. W XVIII w. zanotowano Dąbrowskich: Wronę i Sałka.
Na początku XIX w. dom szynkowy prowadził starozakonny, Jośko Siciowicz.
W XIX w. miejscowość tworzyła tzw. okolicę szlachecką Dąbrowa w powiecie mazowieckim, gmina Szepietowo, parafia Dąbrowa Wielka.
W roku 1827 okolicę tworzyły:
Współcześnie istnieją również:
W roku 1921 naliczono tu 20 budynków z przeznaczeniem mieszkalnym oraz 5 innych zamieszkałych i 128. mieszkańców (62. mężczyzn i 66 kobiet). Narodowość polską podało 125 osób, a 3 białoruską.
Latem, 1945 r. na terenie miejscowości doszło do potyczki między oddziałem zbrojnego podziemia a wojskami sowieckimi i oddziałami UB.
W roku 1922 i 1923 szkoły nie było. Od 1924 roku 1. klasowa szkoła powszechna, liczyła 28 uczniów, w 1925 – 50. Od 1930 szkoła 2. klasowa, liczyła 89 uczniów, w 1932 – 97.
Nauczyciele: 1925 – Razikowa Maria, Wojtkowski Augustyn, 1928 – Bednarczykowa Wanda, 1929 – Jaremczuk Teodor odszedł, Ostafijczyk Józef, 1932 – Kiczkówna Salomea, Ostafijczyk J., 1941 – Brzóska Eugenia, Zarembianka Helena.
Szkoła Podstawowa
Krzyż przydrożny
Remiza OSP

Golden rice

Golden rice is a variety of rice (Oryza sativa) produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesize beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, in the edible parts of rice. It is intended to produce a fortified food to be grown and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin A, a deficiency which is estimated to kill 670,000 children under the age of 5 each year.
Golden rice differs from its parental strain by the addition of three beta-carotene biosynthesis genes. The rice plant can naturally produce beta-carotene in its leaves, where it is involved in photosynthesis. However, the plant does not normally produce the pigment in the endosperm, where photosynthesis does not occur.
In 2005, Golden Rice 2 was announced, which produces up to 23 times more beta-carotene than the original golden rice. To receive the USDA’s Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), it is estimated that 144 g of the high-yielding strain would have to be eaten. Bioavailability of the carotene from golden rice has been confirmed and found to be an effective source of vitamin A for humans.
Although golden rice was developed as a humanitarian tool, it met significant opposition from environmental and anti-globalization activists. Studies have found that golden rice poses no risk to human health, and multiple field tests have taken place with no adverse side-effects to participants.
Golden Rice was one of seven winners of the 2015 Patents for Humanity Awards by the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

Peter Bramley discovered in 2000 that a single phytoene desaturase gene (bacterial CrtI) can be used to produce lycopene from phytoene in GM tomato, rather than having to introduce multiple carotene desaturases that are normally used by higher plants. Lycopene is then cyclized to beta-carotene by the endogenous cyclase in Golden Rice.
The scientific details of the rice were first published in Science in 2000, the product of an eight-year project by Ingo Potrykus of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and Peter Beyer of the University of Freiburg. At the time of publication, golden rice was considered a significant breakthrough in biotechnology, as the researchers had engineered an entire biosynthetic pathway.
Golden rice has been bred with local rice cultivars in the Philippines and Taiwan and with the American rice cultivar ‘Cocodrie’. The first field trials of these golden rice cultivars were conducted by Louisiana State University Agricultural Center in 2004. Field testing provides a more accurate measurement of nutritional value and enables feeding tests to be performed. Preliminary results from the field tests have shown field-grown golden rice produces 4 to 5 times more beta-carotene than golden rice grown under greenhouse conditions.
In 2005, a team of researchers at Syngenta produced Golden Rice 2. They combined the phytoene synthase gene from maize with crt1 from the original golden rice. Golden rice 2 produces 23 times more carotenoids than golden rice (up to 37 µg/g), and preferentially accumulates beta-carotene (up to 31 µg/g of the 37 µg/g of carotenoids).
Golden rice was created by transforming rice with two beta-carotene biosynthesis genes:
(The insertion of a lcy (lycopene cyclase) gene was thought to be needed, but further research showed it is already produced in wild-type rice endosperm.)
The psy and crtI genes were transferred into the rice nuclear genome and placed under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, so that they are only expressed in the endosperm. The exogenous lcy gene has a transit peptide sequence attached, so it is targeted to the plastid, where geranylgeranyl diphosphate is formed. The bacterial crtI gene was an important inclusion to complete the pathway, since it can catalyze multiple steps in the synthesis of carotenoids up to lycopene, while these steps require more than one enzyme in plants. The end product of the engineered pathway is lycopene, but if the plant accumulated lycopene, the rice would be red. Recent analysis has shown the plant’s endogenous enzymes process the lycopene to beta-carotene in the endosperm, giving the rice the distinctive yellow color for which it is named. The original golden rice was called SGR1, and under greenhouse conditions it produced 1.6 µg/g of carotenoids.
Field trials on Golden Rice were started in Bangladesh in 2015.
The research that led to golden rice was conducted with the goal of helping children who suffer from vitamin A deficiency (VAD). In 2005, 190 million children and 19 million pregnant women, in 122 countries, were estimated to be affected by VAD. VAD is responsible for 1–2 million deaths, 500,000 cases of irreversible blindness and millions of cases of xerophthalmia annually. Children and pregnant women are at highest risk. Vitamin A is supplemented orally and by injection in areas where the diet is deficient in vitamin A.
As of 1999[update], 43 countries had vitamin A supplementation programs for children under 5; in 10 of these countries, two high dose supplements are available per year, which, according to UNICEF, could effectively eliminate VAD. However, UNICEF and a number of NGOs involved in supplementation note more frequent low-dose supplementation is preferable.
Because many children in VAD-affected countries rely on rice as a staple food, genetic modification to make rice produce the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene was seen as a simple and less expensive alternative to ongoing vitamin supplements or an increase in the consumption of green vegetables or animal products.
Initial analyses of the potential nutritional benefits of golden rice suggested consumption of golden rice would not eliminate the problems of vitamin A deficiency, but could complement other supplementation. Golden Rice 2 contains sufficient provitamin A to provide the entire dietary requirement via daily consumption of some 75g per day.
Since carotenes are hydrophobic, sufficient fat must be present in the diet for golden rice (or most other vitamin A supplements) to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A deficiency is usually coupled to an unbalanced diet (see also Vandana Shiva’s arguments below). Moreover, this claim referred to an early cultivar of golden rice; one bowl of the latest version provides 60% of RDA for healthy children. The RDA levels advocated in developed countries are far in excess of the amounts needed to prevent blindness.
Dr. José L. Domingo of the Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, at Rovira i Virgili University in Spain said, “According to the information reported by the WHO, genetically modified products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities.” These assessments found no risk to human health. Domingo advocates continued research in the areas of GM rice and its effects on humans.
In 2009, results of a clinical trial of golden rice with adult volunteers from the US were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The trial concluded that “beta carotene derived from golden rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans”. A summary for the American Society for Nutrition suggested that “Golden Rice could probably supply 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamin A from a very modest amount — perhaps a cup — of rice, if consumed daily. This amount is well within the consumption habits of most young children and their mothers”.
It is well known that beta carotene is found and consumed in many nutritious foods eaten around the world, including fruits and vegetables. Beta carotene in food is a safe source of vitamin A.
The Food Allergy Resource and Research Program of the University of Nebraska undertook research in 2006 that showed the proteins from the new genes in golden rice showed no allergenic properties.
In August 2012, Tufts University and others published research on golden rice in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showing that the beta carotene produced by golden rice is as effective as beta carotene in oil at providing vitamin A to children. The study stated that “recruitment processes and protocol were approved”. In 2015 the journal retracted the study, claiming that the researchers had acted unethically when providing Chinese children golden rice without their parents’ consent.
Critics of genetically engineered crops have raised various concerns. An early issue was that golden rice originally did not have sufficient vitamin A. This problem was solved by the development of new strains of rice. The speed at which vitamin A degrades once the rice is harvested, and how much remains after cooking are contested. However, a 2009 study concluded that golden rice is effectively converted into vitamin A in humans and a 2012 study that fed 68 children ages 6 to 8 concluded that golden rice was as good as vitamin A supplements and better than the natural beta-carotene in spinach.
Greenpeace opposes the use of any patented genetically modified organisms in agriculture and opposes the cultivation of golden rice, claiming it will open the door to more widespread use of GMOs. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has emphasised the non-commercial nature of their project, stating that “None of the companies listed … are involved in carrying out the research and development activities of IRRI or its partners in Golden Rice, and none of them will receive any royalty or payment from the marketing or selling of golden rice varieties developed by IRRI.”
Vandana Shiva, an Indian anti-GMO activist, argued the problem was not the plant per se, but potential problems with poverty and loss of biodiversity. Shiva claimed these problems could be amplified by the corporate control of agriculture. By focusing on a narrow problem (vitamin A deficiency), Shiva argued, golden rice proponents were obscuring the limited availability of diverse and nutritionally adequate food. Other groups argued that a varied diet containing foods rich in beta carotene such as sweet potato, leaf vegetables and fruit would provide children with sufficient vitamin A. Keith West of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has stated that foodstuffs containing vitamin A are often unavailable, only available at certain seasons, or too expensive for poor families in underdeveloped countries.
In 2008, WHO malnutrition expert Francesco Branca cited the lack of real-world studies and uncertainty about how many people will use golden rice, concluding “giving out supplements, fortifying existing foods with vitamin A, and teaching people to grow carrots or certain leafy vegetables are, for now, more promising ways to fight the problem”.
In 2013, author Michael Pollan, who had critiqued the product in 2001, unimpressed by the benefits, expressed support for the continuation of the research.
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation supports the use of genetically modified organisms in agricultural development. Specifically, the foundation is supporting the International Rice Research Institute in developing Golden Rice, a genetically modified rice variant used to combat Vitamin A deficiency.
On August 8, 2013 an experimental plot of golden rice being developed at IRRI in the Philippines was uprooted by protesters. Mark Lynas, a famous former anti-GMO activist, reported in Slate that the vandalism was carried out by a group of activists led by the extreme left-inclined Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas (KMP) (unofficial translation: Farmers’ Movement of the Philippines), to the dismay of other protesters. No local farmers participated in the uprooting, only the small number of activists damaged the golden rice crops, because the farmers believe in their local customs which imply that killing a living rice plant is unlucky.
Potrykus has enabled golden rice to be distributed free to subsistence farmers. Free licenses for developing countries were granted quickly due to the positive publicity that golden rice received, particularly in Time magazine in July 2000. Monsanto Company was one of the first companies to grant free licences.
The cutoff between humanitarian and commercial use was set at US$10,000. Therefore, as long as a farmer or subsequent user of golden rice genetics does not make more than $10,000 per year, no royalties need to be paid. In addition, farmers are permitted to keep and replant seed.

Maine penny

The Maine penny, also referred to as the Goddard coin, is a Norwegian silver coin dating to the reign of Olaf Kyrre King of Norway (1067–1093 AD). It has been suggested as evidence of Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact.

Guy Mellgren, a local resident and amateur archaeologist, said he found this coin on August 18, 1957 at the Goddard Site. This was an extensive archeological site at an old Native American settlement at Naskeag Point on Penobscot Bay in Brooklin, Maine. A 1978 article in Time Magazine called the discovery site an ancient Indian rubbish heap near the coastal town of Blue Hill. Over a lengthy period, a collection of 30,000 items from the site were donated to the Maine State Museum. The coin was donated in 1974.
Much of the circumstances of the finding of the coin were not well preserved in the record (as was the case with the majority of the 30,000 finds). The coin was at first mis-identified as a British penny from the 12th century. In 1978, experts from London considered that it might be of Norse origin. Today the identity of the Maine Penny as an Olaf Kyrre silver coin is not in doubt. Kolbjorn Skaare of the University of Oslo determined the coin had been minted between 1065 and 1080 AD and widely circulated in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. By some accounts the penny was found with a perforation, hinting it was used as a pendant. This area of the coin is said to have since crumbled to dust from corrosion.
The Goddard site has been dated to 1180–1235, within the circulation period of pennies of this type. The people living there at the time are generally considered to be ancestors of the Penobscot. While the date is around two hundred years after the last of the Vinland voyages described by Norse sagas, it is well within the period during which the Norse lived in Greenland and could have possibly visited North America.
The penny’s coastal origin has been offered as evidence either that the Norsemen from Greenland traveled further south than Newfoundland or that the coin might have been traded locally. However, the penny was the only Norse artifact found at the site, which according to substantial evidence was a hub in a large native trade network. For example, a single artifact generally identified as a Dorset Eskimo burin was also recovered there, and may support the idea that both the burin and the penny could plausibly have come to Maine through native trade channels from Norse sources in Labrador or Newfoundland.
It has been suggested that the explanation that the coin was either brought by Vikings or traded from a Viking Era site is weak because no coinage has been recovered from the Viking Era archaeological site of L’Anse aux Meadows on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland. Furthermore, the Newfoundland site dates from around two centuries earlier than the Goddard site and was subject to an orderly evacuation.
The Maine State Museum website favors the view that it was found at the site and is therefore evidence of Norse presence on the North American continent, although the Museum states “the most likely explanation for the coin’s presence is that it was obtained by natives somewhere else, perhaps in Newfoundland where the only known New World Norse settlement has been found at L’Anse aux Meadows, and that it eventually reached the Goddard site through native trade channels.” The Maine State Museum describes it as “the only pre-Columbian Norse artifact generally regarded as genuine found within the United States”.
However, the possibility that it may be a hoax has been raised. Notably this Norwegian silver coin and other similar coins of that era were available on the open market during 1957. Thus, Mellgren could have the means and the opportunity to plant the coin at the site, or he could have been deceived by someone planting the coin – though it is unclear what the motive may have been. An assessment of the validity of the find by anthropologist Edmund Snow Carpenter concluded: “Not proven”.
The American Numismatic Society has stated that “There is no reliable confirmation on the documentation of the Goddard coin, and much circumstantial evidence suggests that someone was deliberately trying to manipulate or obfuscate the situation. The Norse coin from Maine should probably be considered a hoax.”
Coordinates: 44°14′06″N 68°32′38″W / 44.23500°N 68.54389°W / 44.23500; -68.54389

Formel-1-Weltmeisterschaft 1982

Saison 1983 >
Die Formel-1-Weltmeisterschaft 1982 war die 33. Saison der Formel-1-Weltmeisterschaft. Sie wurde über 16 Rennen in der Zeit vom 23. Januar 1982 bis zum 25. September 1982 ausgetragen. Keke Rosberg gewann zum ersten und einzigen Mal die Fahrerweltmeisterschaft. Rosberg wurde Weltmeister, obwohl er nur ein einziges aus 16 Saisonrennen gewinnen konnte. Ferrari wurde zum siebten Mal Konstrukteursweltmeister.

Der Große Preis von Südafrika auf dem Kyalami Grand Prix Circuit fand am 23. Januar 1982 statt und ging über eine Distanz von 77 Runden (316,008 km).
Der Große Preis von Brasilien in Jacarepaguá, einem Vorort von Rio de Janeiro in Brasilien, fand am 21. März 1982 statt und ging über 63 Runden (316,953 km).
Der erstplatzierte Nelson Piquet und zweitplatzierte Keke Rosberg wurden wegen untergewichtiger Wagen disqualifiziert.
Der Große Preis der USA West in Long Beach (Kalifornien) fand am 4. April 1982 statt und ging über 75,5 Runden (258,814 km).
Der drittplatzierte Gilles Villeneuve wurde wegen eines doppelten Heckflügels disqualifiziert.
Der Große Preis von San Marino in Imola fand am 25. April 1982 statt und ging über 60 Runden (302,4 km).
Dieses Rennen wurde von den FOCA-Teams aufgrund der Disqualifikationen in Brasilien boykottiert, wodurch nur 14 Fahrer am Rennen teilnahmen. Manfred Winkelhock (ATS-Ford) wurde als Sechster wegen Untergewichts disqualifiziert.
Der Große Preis von Belgien in Zolder fand am 9. Mai 1982 statt und ging über 70 Runden (298,34 km).
Gilles Villeneuve verunglückte beim Qualifying tödlich. Er kollidierte in seiner schnellen Runde mit dem sich in der Auslaufrunde befindlichen Jochen Mass, überschlug sich mehrfach, wurde aus dem Sitz gerissen und prallte gegen einen Mast. Er starb ein paar Stunden später im Uniklinikum Leuven.
Niki Lauda (McLaren-Ford) wurde als Dritter wegen eines untergewichtigen Wagens disqualifiziert.
Der Große Preis von Monaco in Monte Carlo fand am 23. Mai 1982 statt und ging über 76 Runden (251,712 km).
Das Rennen ist vor allem aufgrund seines bizarren Zieleinlaufes bekannt. Nachdem es leicht zu regnen begonnen hatte, schied der lange führende Alain Prost (Renault) in der 74. Runde nach einem Unfall aus, sodass Riccardo Patrese (Brabham) in Führung ging. Patrese fiel jedoch in der 75. Runde durch einen Dreher in der Loews-Kurve zurück, und Didier Pironi (Ferrari) übernahm. In der 76. und letzten Runde blieben jedoch Pironi und der folgende Andrea de Cesaris (Alfa Romeo) wegen Treibstoffmangels stehen und auch der zu diesem Zeitpunkt drittplatzierte Derek Daly (Williams) musste mit einem Getriebeschaden aufgeben, wobei sein Wagen bereits zuvor durch eine Kollision den Heckspoiler eingebüßt hatte. Somit konnte Patrese die verlorenen Plätze wieder gutmachen und seinen ersten Grand Prix gewinnen.
Der Große Preis der USA Ost auf dem Detroit Street Circuit in Detroit fand am 6. Juni 1982 statt und ging über 62 Runden (248,744 km).
Der Große Preis von Kanada in Montreal fand am 13. Juni 1982 statt und ging über 70 Runden (308,7 km).
Riccardo Paletti (Osella) fuhr mit zirka 200 km/h in das Heck des beim Start stehengebliebenen Didier Pironi. Paletti starb bereits beim Aufprall aufgrund der massiven inneren Verletzungen. Pironi kam mit dem Schrecken davon. Nach diesem Startunfall wurde das Rennen abgebrochen und neu gestartet.
Der Große Preis der Niederlande in Zandvoort fand am 3. Juli 1982 statt und ging über eine Distanz von 72 Runden (306,144 km).
Der Große Preis von Großbritannien in Brands Hatch fand am 18. Juli 1982 statt und ging über eine Distanz von 76 Runden (319,732 km).
Der Große Preis von Frankreich in Le Castellet (Var) fand am 25. Juli 1982 statt und ging über eine Distanz von 54 Runden (313,74 km).
Der Große Preis von Deutschland auf dem Hockenheimring fand am 8. August 1982 statt und ging über eine Distanz von 45 Runden (305,865 km).
Didier Pironi hatte im Training einen schweren Unfall. Bei strömendem Regen kollidierte er mit Alain Prost und überschlug sich mehrmals. Dabei erlitt er mehrfache Beinbrüche und musste danach seine Karriere beenden.
Der Große Preis von Österreich auf dem Österreichring in Zeltweg fand am 15. August 1982 statt und ging über eine Distanz von 53 Runden (314,926 km).
Der Große Preis der Schweiz auf dem französischen Circuit de Dijon-Prenois fand am 29. August 1982 statt und ging über eine Distanz von 80 Runden (304,0 km).
Der Große Preis von Italien in Monza fand am 12. September 1982 statt und ging über eine Distanz von 52 Runden (301,60 km).
Der Große Preis von Las Vegas auf dem Caesars Palace Grand Prix Circuit in Las Vegas fand am 25. September 1982 statt und ging über eine Distanz von 75 Runden (273,75 km).
In der Fahrerwertung wurden die besten elf Resultate, in der Konstrukteurswertung alle Resultate gewertet.

T = Turbomotor
Südafrika | Brasilien | USA (West) | San Marino | Belgien | Monaco | USA (Ost) | Kanada | Niederlande | Großbritannien | Frankreich | Deutschland | Österreich | Schweiz | Italien | Las Vegas
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