Basque Country (autonomous community)

The Basque Country (/ˈbæsk/, /ˈbɑːsk/; Basque: Euskadi [eus̺kadi]; Spanish: País Vasco [paˈis ˈβasko]; French: Pays basque) is an autonomous community of northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava, Biscay and Gipuzkoa.

The Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil, although the territory of Navarre was left out and made into a separate autonomous community.

Currently there is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city that holds the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government and the Basque Autonomous Community’s President’s residency (Ajuria Enea Palace) is Vitoria-Gasteiz, located in the province of Álava. Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2 (107 sq mi), Bilbao (or Bilbo in Basque) is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people.

The term Basque Country may also refer to the larger cultural region (Basque: Euskal Herria), the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community.

The following provinces make up the autonomous community:

The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north, France (Nouvelle-Aquitaine) and Navarre to the east and La Rioja (the Ebro River) to the south fabratec fabric shaver. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains. The main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif (1551 m). The three areas are:

Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria. The coast is rough, with high cliffs and small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France.

Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied mainly by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa (the Álava Plains), where the capital Gasteiz is located. The rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra River and Bayas River.

From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones. Some of Spain’s production of Rioja wine takes place here.

The Basque mountains form the watershed and also mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and also the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm.

The middle section is more influence by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate. This gives warm, dry summers and cold, snowy winters.

The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers very warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is scarce and irregular, as low as 300 mm.

Almost half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao’s metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao’s conurbation (Bilbao, Barakaldo, Getxo, Portugalete, Santurtzi and Basauri), which is also known as Greater Bilbao.

With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain, typically from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America.

Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country. The whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both decline and expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, and very severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, and national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes (see Language policies of Francoist Spain). After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country in 1982 following Franco’s death, this reductive trend was gradually reversed thanks to the Basque language schools and the new education system. Basque has always had a strong presence in most of Gipuzkoa, central and eastern Biscay and the northern edge of Álava, while most Basque speakers in western Biscay and the rest of Álava are second-language speakers.

The 2006 sociolinguistic survey of all Basque provinces showed that in 2006 of all people aged 16 and above in the Basque Autonomous Community, 30.1% were fluent Basque speakers, 18.3% passive speakers and 51.5% did not speak Basque. The percentage was highest in Gipuzkoa (49.1% speakers) and lowest in Álava (14.2%). These results represent an increase on previous years (29.5% in 2001, 27.7% in 1996 and 24.1% in 1991). The highest percentage of speakers can now be found in the 16-24 age range (57.5%) vs 25.0% in the 65+ age range.

The forerunner of the Gernika Statute was the short-lived Statute of Autonomy for Álava, Gipuzkoa and Biscay, which came to be enforced in October 1936 just in Biscay, with the Spanish Civil War already raging, and which was automatically abolished when the Spanish Nationalist troops occupied the territory.

Before the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and its system of autonomous communities, these three provinces were known in Spanish as the Provincias Vascongadas since 1833. The political structure of the new autonomous community is defined in the Gernika Statute, which was approved by a majority in a referendum held on 25 October 1979. Nowadays it is one of the most decentralized regions in the world; in this regard it has been described as having “more autonomy than just about any other in Europe” by The Economist.

As regards the bounds to the Spanish Constitution, Basque nationalists cite the fact that in the 1978 Spanish Constitution referendum, which was passed with a majority of votes and a poor turnout in this area, the Basque Country had the highest abstention (the Basque Nationalist Party had endorsed abstention on the grounds that the Constitution was being forced upon them without any Basque input). To this best running belt for water, the “NO” vote in this referendum was also higher in the Basque Country than in the rest of the state. All in all, many Basques believe that they are not bound to a constitution that they never endorsed.

The Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country is an organic law but powers have been devolved gradually during decades according to re-negotiations between the Spanish and the consecutive Basque regional governments to reach an effective implementation, while the transfer of many powers are still due and has always been a matter of heated political discussion. Basque nationalists often put down this limitation in the devolution of powers to concessions made to appease the military involved in the 23-F coup d’état attempt (1981).

In 2003, the governing Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) proposed to alter this statute through the Ibarretxe Plan. The Ibarretxe bill was approved by absolute majority in the Basque Parliament after much discussion, as it was subject to lengthy legal objections—on the grounds that it contradicts the Spanish Constitution—that were ultimately overcome. Despite its mandate of the majority of the autonomous Parliament, the main two parties in Spain (PSOE, PP) imposed a blockade on a discussion of the Plan in the Spanish Parliament (Madrid Cortes Generales), resulting in its rejection for debate by a large majority of that Parliament in January 2005.

Since the first autonomic cabinet, the Basque Nationalist Party has held office in the Basque Autonomous Community except for a 2009-2012 term, led by Patxi Lopez (PSE-PSOE). The current Basque prime minister is Iñigo Urkullu, also a member of the Basque Nationalist Party.

The current laws configure the autonomous community as a federation of its present-day three constituent provinces. These western Basque districts kept governing themselves by their own laws and institutions even after the Castilian conquest in 1200. The new king upheld their institutional system issued from the consuetudinary law prevalent in Basque and Pyrenean territories. This limited self-government, similar to the one for Navarre, was partially suppressed in 1839 and totally in 1876 in exchange for an agreement on tax-collection and a number of administrative prerogatives. These in turn were for Gipuzkoa and Biscay, but restored by the Spanish Constitution of 1978.

The post-Franco Spanish Constitution of 1978 acknowledges historical rights and attempts a compromise in the old conflict between centralism and the different national identities (Basque, Catalan, and Galician). A negotiation between UCD’s Suarez in office and PNV led to the establishment of the Basque statute, with its first article stating that the Basque people (Euskal Herria) takes on an institutional personality in the form of the Basque Autonomous Community; the 2nd article goes on to establish that it may be constituted by Álava, Biscay, Gipuzkoa, as well as Navarre . Provincial councils provided with actual relevant attributions (taxation, etc.) were restored to these provinces (called therefore diputación foral), but Navarre detached from the Basque political process. A specific approach to the national realities in Spain was eventually diffused by a legal provision allowing for the establishment of autonomous administrations and parliaments to any region in Spain (e.g. Castile and León, Catalonia, the Valencian Community, etc.), while the Basques, Catalans, and Galicians were acknowledged historic specificity.

The provinces in the Basque Country still perform tax collection in their respective territories, but with limited margin in decision making under the Spanish and European governments. Under this intricate system, the Diputaciones Forales (Basque: Foru Aldundiak) administer most of each of the provinces but are coordinated by the autonomous Basque Government (Spanish Gobierno Vasco, Basque: Eusko Jaurlaritza). The autonomous community has its own police force (the Ertzaintza), controls Education and Health Systems, and has a Basque radio/TV station. These and only some of the powers acknowledge in the Gernika Statute have since 1980 been transferred to the Autonomous Community by the Cortes Generales under the Gernika Statute. The seats of the Basque Parliament and Government are in Vitoria-Gasteiz, so this is the capital city de facto, but the Basque Autonomous Community has no capital de iure.

The Parliament is composed of 25 representatives from each of the three provinces. The Basque Parliament elects the Lehendakari (President of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country) who forms a government following regular parliamentary procedures. Until 2009 all Lehendakaris (even those in 1937 and during the exile) have been members of the Basque Nationalist Party (Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea) (moderate and Christian-Democrat) since 1978. Despite their continued leadership role, they have not always enjoyed majorities for their party and have needed to form coalitions with either Spain wide parties or left-leaning Basque nationalist parties, often governing in a difficult minority position.[citation needed] Since 1982 until the late 1990s, Basque nationalists ideologically closer to ETA refused to turn out in the Basque parliament, a significant wedge of the parliament. Currently, the Basque Government is headed by Iñigo Urkullu (PNV). In the 2012 Basque parliamentary election, the PNV obtained a plurality of the votes, followed by the left-wing nationalist coalition EH Bildu (Eusko Alkartasuna, Sortu, Alternatiba).

ETA’s permanent ceasefire (2010-2011) opened the possibility of new governmental alliances and has enabled EH Bildu’s electoral success and rise to governmental institutions (Gipuzkoa, capital city Donostia).

The statute, insofar as it is addressed and provides an administrative framework for the Basque people, provides the mechanisms for neighbouring Navarre to join the three western provinces if it wishes to do so, since at least part of it is ethnically Basque. The Basque Government used the “Laurak Bat”, which included the arms of Navarre, as its symbol for many years. The Navarrese Government protested, and tribunals ruled in their favour. The Basque Government replaced it with an empty red field.

Navarre is one of the historical Basque territories and even claimed by the Basque nationalists as the core of the Basque nation. There are also two enclaves surrounded by Basque territory—Treviño (Basque: Trebiñu) and Valle de Villaverde (Basque: Villaverde-Turtzioz)—which belong to the fellow neighbouring communities of Castile and León and Cantabria respectively, for which a legal connection to the Basque Country has become an on-off matter of political discussion.

The Basque Autonomous Community ranks first in Spain in terms of per capita income, with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita being 40% higher than that of the European Union and 33.8% higher than Spain’s average in 2010, at €31,314. Industrial activities were traditionally centered on steel and shipbuilding, mainly due to the rich iron ore resources found during the 19th century around Bilbao. The Estuary of Bilbao was the center of the Basque Country’s industrial revolution during the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. These activities decayed during the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s, giving ground for the development of the services sector and new technologies.

Today, the strongest industrial sectors of the Basque Country’s economy are machine tool, present in the valleys of Biscay and Gipuzkoa; aeronautics in Vitoria-Gasteiz; and energy, in Bilbao.

The main companies in the Basque Country are: BBVA bank, Iberdrola energy company (both of them have their headquarters in Bilbao), Mondragón Cooperative Corporation—MCC, the largest cooperative in the world—Gamesa wind turbine producer and CAF rolling stock producer. MCC’s business leadership in the Basque Country hangs in the balance after Fagor, its flagship cooperative of household appliances and goods manufacturing, declared bankruptcy in 2014.

8 in 10 Spanish municipalities with the lowest unemployment rates lay across this autonomous community in 2015, standing out such towns as Arrasate, Portugalete and Barakaldo with a strong manufacturing industrial make-up. The Basque Autonomous Community ranked above other communities in Spain in terms of resilience in the face of the economic crisis, going on to become a beacon and matter of study in Europe.

In 2013 the Basque Country outperformed Spain in several parameters, but economic overall figures were highly variable. Spanish figures are subject to conspicuous seasonal fluctuation, relying on its tourist and services sectors, while Basque performance is rather based on mid- and long-term results according to its more industrial approach. Unemployment in this autonomous community rises to 15.76% (12.75% in Gipuzkoa), the lowest in Spain at a percentage higher than the EU average (10.8%), but still way ahead of the Spanish overall of around 26% best steak tenderizer marinade, the second highest rate in the EU.

In regards to GDP performance, 2013 was a negative year for the Basque Autonomous Community. It underwent a decline rate in GDP of -1.9%, somewhat higher than the Spanish percentage, -1.2%. In the last term of 2013, the public debt of the Basque Autonomous Community stood at 13.00% of its GDP, totalling 3,753 € per capita, as compared to Spain’s overall 93.90%, totalling 20,383 € per capita.

Basque Government’s high-ranking officials, as well as Basque-based party leaders and personalities, have protested and voiced their concern for the detrimental effects austerity measures passed by the Spanish Government as of 2011, overruling Basque taxation powers, may be having on industry and trade, especially export. The former have strongly advocated for a participation along with Navarre in the Ecofin with a full membership, in order to defend Basque interests in line with its own reality and fiscal status, and not as a Spanish subsidiary.

The strategic geographical location of the Basque Country as a link between the northwest and centre of Spain and the rest of Europe makes this territory heavily transited.

The main backbones of road transport are the AP-8 motorway which links Bilbao, San Sebastián and the French border and the A-1 motorway which links San Sebastián and Gasteiz with central Spain. Other important routes include the AP-68 motorway which links Bilbao with the Mediterranean.

Eusko Trenbide Sarea (Basque Railway Network) is the Basque Government-owned company that maintains and creates the railway infrastructure in the autonomous region. EuskoTren (Basque Train) is the Basque Government-owned narrow gauge rail company that operates commuter services in Bilbao and San Sebastián, intercity Bilbao-San Sebastián service, and EuskoTran tram services in Bilbao and Vitoria-Gasteiz.

Metro Bilbao operates the two metro lines that serve the Greater Bilbao area.

The Spanish government owns two main RENFE broad gauge lines that link Gasteiz with San Sebastián and Bilbao with central Spain. It also operates Cercanías commuter lines in both Bilbao and San Sebastián.

FEVE narrow gauge company operates a commuter line between Bilbao and Balmaseda and links Bilbao with the rest of northern Spain.

A new high-speed network (called Basque Y) currently under construction will link the three capitals in ‘Y’ formation. It is scheduled to be completed in 2017, including a connection with the French TGV network in Hendaye. Because of the rough geography of the territory, most of the network will run through tunnels, with a total estimated cost of up to €10billion.

The estimated ecological impact of the project has encouraged the formation of a group campaigning against it called AHTrik Ez Elkarlana. The group uses social disobedience to oppose the project and promotes referendums against it in the towns it affects most. In spite of the vocal opposition to the project of this and other community groups (as well as EH Bildu) work continues, not without uncertainty. In early 2015, an estimate suggested that the average Basque intercity fare would rise to a non-competitive 25 €, while the Spanish central government’s funding has been subject to continuous delays, spurring the irritation of the Basque government in Vitoria-Gasteiz.

The three capitals have airports:

Of the three, the most important hub and entry point to the Basque Country is Bilbao Airport, offering many international connections. Over 4,200,000 passengers passed through it in 2007.

The two most important ports are the Port of Bilbao and the Port of Pasaia. There are other minor fishing ports like Bermeo and Ondarroa.

The Port of Bilbao is by far the most important in the Basque Country and the north of Spain, being the fourth most important in Spain with over 38 million tons of traffic.

All cruising routes arrive in Bilbao and there is a ferry service linking Bilbao with Portsmouth (United Kingdom).

Basque cuisine is an important part of Basque culture. According to the chef Ferran Adrià, San Sebastián “in terms of the average quality of the food, in terms of what you can get at any place you happen to walk into, maybe it is – probably it is, yes – the best in the world.” The most popular dishes are seafood, fish (for example Marmitako) and “Pintxos”, bar finger food.

During the 70s, several chefs from the Basque Country, particularly Juan Mari Arzak and Pedro Subijana, led a gastronomic revolution, translating to Spain the principles of French nouvelle cuisine. The first Spanish restaurant to be awarded 3 stars in the Michelin Guide was, in fact, Zalacaín, a Basque restaurant, although located in Madrid. Today, the Basque Country, alongside Catalonia, is the Spanish region with a higher density of stars in the Michelin Guide, and it has become a preferred destination of many gastronomic tourists, both domestic and international. Four restaurants boast 3 stars, the highest possible award: Juan María Arzak (Arzak restaurant), Martín Berasategui (Berasategui restaurant), Pedro Subijana (chef of Akelarre) and Eneko Atxa (Azurmendi restaurant). In the new generation of chefs, Andoni Luis Aduriz, Mugaritz restaurant, is outstanding.

Basque food is one of the reasons for tourism to the Basque Country, especially the pintxos. A popular way to socialize is “ir de pintxos” or txikiteo, a Basque version of a pub crawl, albeit generally more civilized.

Basque rural sports, known as Herri Kirolak in Basque, are a number of sports competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyles of the Basque people, for example Basque pelota, the Basque version of the European game family that includes real tennis and squash. Basque players, playing for either the Spanish or the French teams, dominate international competitions

The Basque country is also home to former national football champions Athletic Club from Bilbao. When Spain won the 2010 FIFA World Cup, Xabi Alonso became the only Basque player to win both the World Cup and the club European Cup. Athletic is the most successful club in the community, and has a strict Cantera policy of employing only players born or trained in the Basque Country (greater region). Athletic’s policy does not apply to head coaches, with famous names as Howard Kendall and Jupp Heynckes coaching the team at various points. In spite of this, the club shares with worldwide heavyweights Real Madrid and FC Barcelona the distinction of being the only clubs never to have been relegated from the top flight.

Another major Basque Country club is Real Sociedad from San Sebastián, who contest the Basque derby with Athletic. Real Sociedad used to practice the same policy, until they signed Irish striker John Aldridge in the late 80s. Since then, Real Sociedad have had many foreign players. The region is also home to other La Liga clubs SD Eibar and Deportivo Alavés. The most renowned Basque footballer of all time is possibly Andoni Zubizarreta who holds the record for appearances in La Liga with 622 games and has won 6 league titles and 1 European Cup. Nowadays, the best known Basque football player is Xabi Alonso, winner of 2 UEFA European Championships and 1 World Cup, who played for Real Sociedad, Liverpool and Real Madrid and now plays for Bayern Munich. Other notable Basque players include Mikel Arteta and Ander Herrera. Both Athletic and Real Sociedad have won the Spanish league, including domination as late as the early 1980s, with the last title won by a Basque club being Athletic’s 1984 title.

Cycling as a sport is popular in the Basque Country. Abraham Olano has won the Vuelta a España and the World Championship. The UCI World Tour Movistar Team hails from the Basque Country. The Caisse d’Épargne cycling team traces its history back to the Banesto team that included Indurain. The region is home to the Tour of the Basque Country stage race and the Clasica de San Sebastian one day race. The Euskaltel–Euskadi team was also part of the World Tour until its disbandment in 2014. It was an unofficial Basque national team and was partly funded by the Basque Government. Its riders were either Basque, or at least grown up in the Basque cycling culture, and former members of the team have been strong contenders in the Tour de France held annually in July and Vuelta a España held in September. Team leaders have included riders such as Iban Mayo, Haimar Zubeldia, Samuel Sánchez, David Etxebarria, Igor Antón, Mikel Landa and Mikel Nieve.

Some notable Basque people from this administrative jurisdiction include Francisco de Vitoria, philosopher who set the theories of just war, international law and freedom of commerce; Juan Sebastián Elcano, completed first circumnavigation of the Earth; Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Jesuits; Don Juan de Oñate, explorer of the great plains and Colorado river; Blas de Lezo, naval strategist, best remembered for his defensive tactics at the Battle of Cartagena de Indias; Jorge Oteiza sculptor; Paco Rabanne, fashion designer; Cristóbal Balenciaga, fashion designer; Xabi Alonso and Mikel Arteta, footballers; Edurne Pasaban, first woman to climb all of the fourteen eight-thousander peaks in the World; Elena Arzak, best female chef in the world (2012); Jon Kortajarena male model; Jose-Maria Cundin, artist; Fernando Savater philosopher; Miguel de Unamuno, essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, philosopher.

Jürgen Kopp

Jürgen Kopp (* 1956 in Bad Berleburg; † 26. Juni 2014) war ein Orgelbaumeister mit Sitz in Emden und Aurich (Ostfriesland), der sich auf den Neubau kleinerer 8-Fuß-Orgeln, variabler, ausbaufähiger Konzeptinstrumente und Truhenorgeln spezialisiert hatte, aber auch Restaurierungen, Stimm-, Wartungs- und Umbauprojekte durchführte. Er war im Bundesgebiet und im englischsprachigen Ausland tätig.

Nach einer handwerklichen Grundausbildung Anfang der 1970er Jahre zum Möbel- und Bautischler erlernte er den Orgelbau zunächst bei Gerald Woehl in Marburg best belt com, arbeitete Anfang der 1980er Jahre bei der Karl Schuke GmbH Berlin, war eine Zeit lang bei Jürgen Ahrend tätig und begann 1987 als Mitarbeiter der Krummhörner Orgelwerkstatt, einem Kollektiv junger Orgelbauer in Greetsiel. Für deren Geschäftsinhaberin Regina Stegemann war Kopp nach Eröffnung ihrer eigenen Werkstatt 1993 in Aurich weiter tätig. 1990 begann Kopp neben der Arbeit für Stegemann mit den Vorbereitungen seiner Meisterprüfung, die er 1995 ablegte. Im Jahr 2000 übernahm Kopp den gesamten Betrieb in Aurich-Tannenhausen, ermöglichte Stegemann aber die weitere Nutzung der Werkstatt für ihre eigenen Orgelbau-Projekte und die zeitweise Mitarbeit in seinem Betrieb.

Die nachfolgende Werkliste erhebt nicht den Anspruch der Vollständigkeit.

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Pedalgehäuse ohne Abbildung. Schleifenteilungen schaltbar für h/c1 oder c1/cis1 in beiden Transpositionslagen, a1 = 415 oder 440 Hz

a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz

a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz

a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz

a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz

a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz

a’= 415, 440 oder 466 Hz

a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz



Pedalorgel 16′, 8′, 4′ mit aufgesetzter Truhenorgel.

a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz

a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz


a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz

a1 = 415, 440 oder 466 Hz

Branimir Altgayer

Branimir Altgayer (geboren am 8. Dezember 1897 in Przekopana, Vorort von Przemyśl, Kronland Galizien, Österreich-Ungarn, hingerichtet am 15. Mai 1950 in Zagreb, Föderative Volksrepublik Jugoslawien), war ein Offizier des Königreichs Jugoslawien und des Unabhängigen Staates Kroatien (NDH) sowie „Volksgruppenführer“ der Deutschen in Kroatien während des Zweiten Weltkriegs.

Laut Vernehmungsprotokollen der UDBA wurde Altgayer in Galizien geboren, wo sein Vater, der aus Osijek (deutsch Esseg) stammte, als österreichisch-ungarischer Kavallerieleutnant diente. Er wuchs in verschiedenen Garnisonsstädten (Pardubitz, Tschakathurn, Sarajewo) und ab 1904 in Kutjevo in Slawonien auf, wo er die dortige kroatische Schule besuchte. Danach ging er an kroatische Gymnasien in Osijek und Zemun (deutsch Semlin), wo er seine Matura ablegte.

Nach Abschluss der Kavallerie-Kadettenschule in Hranice na Moravě (deutsch Mährisch Weißkirchen), die er von 1912 bis 1915 besuchte, kämpfte er während des Ersten Weltkrieges als Offizier der österreichisch-ungarischen Armee in Russland, Rumänien und Italien. Am 24. August 1915 wurde er zum Leutnant, am 17. August 1917 zum Oberleutnant befördert.

Vom 16. Dezember 1918 bis zum 28. Januar 1927 diente er in der Armee des Königreichs der Serben, Kroaten und Slowenen, wo er den Rang eines Hauptmannes Erster Klasse erreichte. Nach dem Ausscheiden aus der Armee arbeitete er als Buchhalter, Bankbeamter, Vertreter und Leiter einer landwirtschaftlichen Genossenschaft, bis er ab 1937 hauptberuflicher Politiker wurde.

Im Sommer 1928 unternahm Branimir Altgayer einen Vorstoß, einen deutschen Bauernverein zu gründen. Dieses Vorhaben konnte aber aufgrund des Beginns der Königsdiktatur 1929 nicht umgesetzt werden. Am 19. März 1934 war er Gründer und Vorsitzender der Ortsgruppe Osijek des Schwäbisch-Deutschen Kulturbundes (SDKB). Am 3. Dezember 1934 wurde er in den Bundesausschuss des SDKB berufen, wo er den am Nationalsozialismus orientierten Flügel der „Erneuerungsbewegung“ vertrat.

1936 gründete er in Osijek die „Kultur- und Wohlfahrtsvereinigung der Deutschen“ (KWVD) und stellte sich damit gegen die konservativ ausgerichtete Führung des Kulturbundes. Nach der Vereinnahmung des Kulturbundes durch die „Erneuerer“ und dessen Fusion mit der KWVD 1939 übernahm er die regionale Leitung für Slawonien.

Nach der Gründung des Unabhängigen Staates Kroatien (NDH) 1941 wurde er (nicht gewählter) deutscher „Volksgruppenführer“. Gewählt worden war Josef Meier, der auf Weisung der Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle Kroatien verlassen musste. 1942 wurde er als einer von zwei Vertretern der deutschen Minderheit (der andere war Ferdinand Gasteiger) zum Mitglied des Kroatischen Parlaments „Sabor“ ernannt. 1943 wurde er darüber hinaus Staatssekretär in der kroatischen Regierung und dort verantwortlich für die inneren Angelegenheiten der deutschen Minderheit. In dieser Funktion legalisierte er die Einsätze der Einsatzstaffel der Deutschen Mannschaft gegen Partisanen cheap european football shirts.

Der faschistische Diktator des NDH Ante Pavelić beförderte Altgayer zum Oberst in der Ustascha-Miliz und verlieh ihm den Rittertitel (kroatisch vitez). Kurzzeitig diente er an der Ostfront.

Seit dem 12. November 1940 war Altgayer Mitglied der SS. Am 6 big glass water bottle. November 1941 wurde er von Heinrich Himmler zum SS-Hauptsturmführer und am 9. November 1943 zum SS-Sturmbannführer ernannt.

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde Altgayer von der britischen Besatzungsmacht mit anderen, gegen die ein Auslieferungsbegehren lief, im Lager Wolfsberg interniert und an Jugoslawien ausgeliefert. Er wurde vom Kreisgericht Zagreb am 21. Januar 1950 wegen „Verbrechen gegen Volk und Staat“ zum Tode verurteilt. Ein Gnadengesuch reichte er vergeblich ein. Am 15. Mai 1950 wurde er durch Erschießen hingerichtet.

All at Sea (TV series)

All at Sea is a British children’s television sitcom set in a bed and breakfast. It stars Nicola Stephenson glass bottled water, Steve Edge, Ryan Wilkinson, Olivia Cosgrove and Sam Hattersley amongst others. It is filmed on location in Scarborough and various locations around South Manchester (principally Stockport) and at studios in Manchester. It is produced by CBBC (CBBC’s in-house production company) A second series began airing in September 2014. The series was nominated for the 2014 Kids’ BAFTA awards for Best Comedy. It was nominated again in 2015 for the same award. “Santa” was the last ever episode.

The series revolves around the chaotic misadventures of the Enright family, who have recently moved to Scarborough to run a bed-and-breakfast by the sea. Their middle child and eldest son, Charlie, is a deceptive and mischievous troublemaker, who is constantly plotting schemes to achieve his goal with his best friends, the equally-troublesome Alison and the moralled and more sensible Ben. Charlie’s parents, Kevin and Helen football player uniform, run the dysfunctional bed-and-breakfast and usually try to improve it in different ways, while his selfish, rude older sister Hannah is often trying to achieve a goal too, and his eccentric, gullible younger brother Louie believing a tale that will traumatize him and will try to conquer it. Each episode ends with Charlie complaining about his punishment by uttering his catchphrase – “It’s a travesty of justice!” The only episodes that didn’t end with this is the Series 1 Christmas special “Murderer” and the 2015 Christmas special “Santa”. Although filmed with all the Series 2 episodes in the summer of 2014 goalie outfit, “Santa” did not actually air until 2015, therefore not being part of Series 2.

It’s Christmas in Scarborough. Charlie sets up a Santa’s Grotto in a public toilet to get money to buy Mum perfume after spending £500 on downloading a bunch of movies on her phone what are football socks called. Meanwhile, Hannah dates a very strange and controlling boy named Ted just for the expensive presents and Louie thinks Santa is following him.


Speke (/ˈspiːk/) is an area of Liverpool, Merseyside, England, close to the boundaries of the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley. It is 7.7 miles (12.4 km) south east of the city centre and to the west of the town of Widnes.

Speke is bordered by a number of other areas; Garston, Hunts Cross, Halewood and Hale Village and is located near to the widest part of the River Mersey.

The name derives from the Old English Spec garment shaver, meaning ‘brushwood’. It was known as Spec in the Domesday Book, which gave Speke Hall as one of the properties held by Uctred. (Today Speke Hall, now a Tudor wood-framed house, is open to the public.)

In the mid 14th century, the manors of Speke, Whiston, Skelmersdale, and Parr were held by William Dacre, 2nd Baron Dacre.

Until the 1930s, Speke was a small village with a population of 400; by the end of the 1950s more than 25,000 people were living in the area. The local All Saints Church was built by the last resident owner of Speke Hall good soccer socks, Miss Adelaide Watt.

From 1795 until 1921, the Speke estate had belonged to the Watt family; when the family died out, the estate was placed in trust. It was bought by the Liverpool Corporation in 1928 for £200,000; the Corporation’s intention was to build a complete self-contained satellite town (this was at a time when the garden city movement was underway). The parish of Speke became part of the county borough of Liverpool in 1932, having previously belonged to the Whiston Rural District.

Constructed between 1930 and 1933, by the start of World War II, Speke Airport was the second busiest in the UK. Retention of control by the Ministry of Civil Aviation in London after the war meant that it had lost its leading position in the UK by the 1950s.

The industrial rise of Speke continued until the mid-1970s, when an equally rapid decline ensued. The closure of the Bryant and May match factory was a noted example of these problems, as was the closure of the Triumph car plant. The area has however retained a cluster of pharmaceutical facilities, with companies operating there including Eli Lilly and Company, MedImmune and Novartis.

When the 2000 Index of Multiple Deprivation was published Speke was revealed to be the second most deprived ward in England and Wales (out of 8414). Only Benchill in Manchester had a higher level of deprivation.

Speke is known for Speke Hall, a Tudor wood-framed house now owned by the National Trust and open to the public. It is also notable as the location of Liverpool John Lennon Airport, known until 2001 as Liverpool Speke Airport. From the mid-1990s the re-development of the original airport site, enabled by the construction of the new airport complex and runway, had left land available for the construction of a business park reusable 2 liter bottles. The completion of the A5001 road consolidated the rise of the airport and improved communications in the area. The shows a lot of the developments that changed Speke the village into Speke the estate with photographs and documents from the 1870s onwards.

The New Mersey Shopping Park was re-developed in 1999 from an older retail site. It houses many large retail and textile outlets as well as mainstream restaurants. The New Mersey Retail Estate is situated between Speke and Garston, directly opposite to the Old Liverpool Airport main terminal building, which is now a hotel complex.

The area also features the Mersey Wave, officially opened on 15 December 2003, a 200 ft-long (61 m) and 100 ft (30 m) high illuminated sculpture comprising two sets of six aluminium fins. The sculpture, designed by Peter Fink, was removed for repairs within weeks of opening, a problem causing its fins to move dangerously in high winds having been discovered. It was rebuilt in June 2005 and the structure, 30 ft (9.1 m) taller than the Angel of the North at Gateshead, is visible from as far as Winter Hill, Horwich, Greater Manchester.

In 2011, planning was submitted and subsequently granted for Estuary Banks, a £6 million business park scheme developed by Capital & Centric Plc and Barnfield Construction. Constructed started on 80,000 sq ft (7,400 m2) of speculative construction in November 2011. The latest phase (120,000 sq ft) has been completed with 80,000 sold to Business First in June 2012.

Recent developments in Speke have seen a multi-million-pound Morrisons superstore, situated directly next to the A561 Speke Boulevard (locally known as ‘The Ford Road’), which is located only metres away from the Mersey Wave. Planning was granted in May 2012 for Speke Business Park on Goodlass Road. It comprises 45,000 sq ft (4,200 m2) of business units and was developed by Manchester-based developer Capital & Centric Plc.

Football Club: Speke South Liverpool, a local amateur football side, was originally founded at the Austin Rawlinson Sports Centre, Speke. However, late 2005 saw the club relocate a short distance away to Mossley Hill. The leading amateur football club in the area now is St Christophers FC, who are located at Little Heath.

Speke is the location of the headquarters of Shop Direct Group discount goalkeeper gloves, which claims to be the UK’s largest online retailer.

Is the Leg Press a Good Machine to Use?

Leg press machines are common sites in most gyms. Used as an alternative to squats, lunges and other lower body exercises, leg press machines are popular with bodybuilders and those wishing to lift heavy weights. Using a leg press offers advantages and disadvantages, but correct use of the leg press provides an effective lower body workout.
Most strength-training equipment manufacturers make a leg press machine but, while there are many models of leg press available, there are only two main types of design. The first design is often referred to as a 45-degree leg press or sled leg press. To use this style of machine you sit on an reclined seat with your legs elevated and push against a weighted footplate guided by rails. The second design uses a weighted pendulum that swings away from you when you push with your legs. This design normally utilizes a more upright seated position and horizontal pushing action. Some leg presses allow for independent leg action but the majority of machines use both legs simultaneously. Most leg presses are plate loaded ! that is to say you alter the weight by adding or subtracting weight plates.
The leg press is an exercise for all of your lower body muscles. Extending your knees against the resistance offered by the leg press works your thigh muscles ! the hamstrings to the rear and quadriceps to the front. The action of extending your hips works your butt or gluteus maximus muscles. The load bearing effect of the leg press also strengthens your legs bones: the femur, tibia and fibula. Leg presses also strengthen your knee and hip joints. The leg press can be used to develop strength and/or muscle size ! called hypertrophy ! depending the type of training you perform.
Leg presses use a guided movement that minimizes your need to balance the weight and coordinate your limbs. This means you are free to concentrate on lifting and lowering the weight ! a particular benefit if you want to train using especially heavy loads. Most models of leg press also have range of movement limiters that prevent the weight from falling and squashing you if you fail to complete a repetition. This means that leg presses are especially suitable if you train alone. Leg press machines provide lower back support which may reduce your risk of suffering from a back injury.
It is all too easy to place excessive strain on your knees and lower back when using a leg press machine ! especially if you are using large weights or a large range of movement

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. Lowering your legs too close to your chest can result in an acute knee angle, which can prove injurious. Also, bending your legs so that your knees press against your abdomen can cause your lower back to round out, which places an enormous load on your lower spine. Serious back injury can be the result of lowering the weight too low.
To minimize your risk of injury when leg pressing you should ensure that your lower back never rounds out and that you avoid bending your knees so as to place them at an overly acute angle. Press evenly with both legs and, in case you get into difficulties, make certain you are familiar with the locking mechanism of the machine you are using. The leg press is an effective lower body exercise and provides a viable alternate for squats and lunges, but any safety advantages offered by the leg press can be negated by performing this exercising using poor form.

Peter Shaw

Peter Shaw best belt com, de son nom complet Peter Shaw Pullen est un acteur et producteur britannique né le 24 juin 1918 à Reading et mort le 29 janvier 2003 à Los Angeles (Californie).

Il était marié à l’actrice Angela Lansbury.

Né à Reading en Angleterre, il commence sa carrière devant les caméras durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Il signe un contrat avec la Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer à la fin des années 1940 et part pour Los Angeles. C’est dans les studios de la compagnie qu’il rencontre la comédienne Angela Lansbury, qu’il épouse le 12 août 1949.

C’est avec l’agent Paul Small que Shaw fait ses premiers pas en tant que producteur exécutif. Plus tard, il entre à l’agence William Morris où il représente des vedettes telles que Katharine Hepburn ou Robert Mitchum. Après un retour en tant que producteur à la MGM en 1964, il s’associe de nouveau à l’agence William Morris en tant que directeur commercial international.

En 1987, il lance avec ses deux fils la société de production Corymore Productions qui produit entre autres pour les studios Universal la série télévisée Arabesque (Elle écrit au meurtre au Québec) dont le rôle principal est tenu par Angela Lansbury.

Il meurt le 29 janvier 2003 à l’âge de 84 ans dans sa propriété de Los Angeles.

Vilhelm Pedersen

Thomas Vilhelm Pedersen (28. januar 1820 på Karlslundegaard ved Køge – 13. marts 1859 i København) var en dansk søofficer og tegner. Han er far til Viggo Pedersen og Thorolf Pedersen, der begge var malere. Han er kendt for sine illustrationer til Hans Christian Andersens eventyr

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Vilhelm Pedersen blev født i Køge og begyndte som søkadet da han var 14 år gammel. Han avancerede fra kadet (1834) til sekondløjtnant (1841) og til premierløjtnant (1850).

Han havde tidligt vist anlæg for at tegne. Pedersen tjenestegjorde om bord på et skib, hvor Christian 8. blev opmærksom på hans talent. Kongen gav ham orlov i fire år med fuld løn fra 1842, hvilket gav ham mulighed for at dygtiggøre sig. Han begyndte i lære hos maleren Wilhelm Marstrand, der samtidig gav ham tilgang til Kunstakademiet youth sports jerseys, hvor han gik på Modelskolen 1844-46.

Pedersen begyndte at tegne illustrationer til H.C. Andersens eventyr i 1847 og udstillede samme år på Charlottenborg Forårsudstilling. De udkom første gang i en tysk udgave i 1849.

Ved Treårskrigens udbrud meldte han sig igen og gjorde bl.a. tjeneste på fregatten Gefion ved affæren i Egernførde Fjord, hvor han blev såret og måtte gå i fangenskab. Han udmærkede sig i øvrigt under slaget og blev af sin chef indstillet til Ridderkorset. 1850 gjorde han tjeneste på korvetten Valkyrien og var 1851-52 på togt til Vestindien med briggen Ørnen

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. 1856 var han næstkommanderende på korvetten Thor, men måtte derefter søge orlov af hensyn til en fremadskridende tuberkulose. 1856-57 var han derfor rekreationsophold i Italien, hvor han fik tegnet en del.

Men opholdet var forgæves. Wilhelm Pedersen døde af denne lungesygdom kun 39 år gammel. Han er begravet på Assistens Kirkegård.

Den lille havfrue. Illustration af Vilhelm Pedersen til H. C. Andersens eventyr.

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Rachel Tzabari

Rachel Tzabari (Hebrew: רחל צברי‎‎ phone bag waterproof, 27 July 1909 – 16 February 1995) was an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for Mapai and its successors between 1952 and 1969.

Born in Tel Aviv during the Ottoman era, Tzabari was educated at a girls’ school in Neve Tzedek, before studying at a Teachers Seminary in Tel Aviv and at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. She worked as a teacher, and taught at the model schools in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. She also lectured at the Teachers Seminary at Beit HaKerem, and was a schools supervisor in Jerusalem.

A member of the Haganah prior to independence, Tzabari was on the Mapai list for the 1951 elections, but failed to win a seat conair cls1 fabric shaver. However, she entered the Knesset on 4 April 1952 as a replacement for the deceased Yehezkel Hen. She retained her seat in elections in 1955, 1959, 1961 and 1965, by which time Mapai had formed the Alignment. She lost her seat in the 1969 elections.

She died in 1995 at the age of 85.

Carolina Topcats

Carolina TopCats Cheerleaders are the official cheerleading squad of the NFL’s Carolina Panthers. The TopCats perform a variety of dance moves during home games at Bank of America Stadium, the home stadium of the Panthers.

Auditions for the TopCats are typically held annually in April, which also take place at Bank of America Stadium. The group makes appearances at various events umbro football socks, as well as corporate appearances. The squad’s staff includes Richelle Williams

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, Cheerleader Manager and Choreographer. As of 2016, the squad currently features 31 members. The squad also has a “Junior TopCats” program, where girls from across the Carolinas participate in three clinics and learn a halftime routine to perform with the TopCats during a Panthers home game.

Controversy ensued in November 2005 when two Topcats allegedly had sex with each other in a bar in the Channel District of Downtown Tampa, Florida. Both of them were drunk and had been unable to leave the bar. One of the cheerleaders, who was underage for drinking, hit a patron in the face and was violent and rude towards police that attempted to apprehend them. She also allegedly gave officers a driver’s license that belonged to a different member of the squad who wasn’t in Tampa at the time shop football jerseys. She was later charged with battery and giving a false name. The other was charged with disorderly conduct and resisting arrest, and was later released on a $750 bail. Both were eventually removed from the squad on November 7 for violating a code that they signed which bans conduct that can be considered embarrassing to the Panthers thermos hydration bottle with straw.