Monthly Archives: May 2016

Combinaison (mathématiques)

En mathématiques, lorsqu’on choisit k objets parmi n objets discernables (numérotés de 1 à n) et que l’ordre dans lequel les objets sont placés (ou énumérés) n’a pas d’importance, on peut les représenter par un ensemble à k éléments. Les combinaisons servent donc, entre autres, en combinatoire. Un exemple est la main qu’on obtient en tirant simultanément k cartes dans un jeu de n cartes ; ou au jeu du loto, le tirage final (qui ne dépend pas de l’ordre d’apparition des boules obtenues).

Soit E un ensemble fini de cardinal n et k un entier naturel. Les combinaisons de cet ensemble sont ses sous-ensembles (ou ses parties). Une k-combinaison de E (ou k-combinaison sans répétition de E, ou encore combinaison sans répétition de n éléments pris k à k) est une partie à k éléments de E.
On note, l’ensemble des k-combinaisons de E. L’ensemble est fini et son cardinal est le coefficient binomial (lu « k parmi n » ), encore noté parfois (lu « combinaison de k parmi n »), la première notation étant préconisée par la norme ISO 31-11. On a , où est le nombre de k-arrangements de E et k! est la factorielle de k.
Deux arrangements sont équivalents, s’il existe une permutation à k éléments qui envoie l’un sur l’autre. Deux arrangements sont alors équivalents si et seulement s’ils correspondent à la même partie à k éléments de E. Une classe d’équivalence est alors une combinaison et il y a autant de classes que de combinaisons. Mais chaque classe contient k! arrangements qui sont en relation ; d’après la réciproque du lemme des bergers il y a donc classes ou combinaisons.
Avec la formule pour , on obtient , qui pour k ≤ n peut aussi s’écrire : .
Un algorithme efficace pour calculer le nombre de combinaisons de k éléments parmi n, utilise les identités suivantes (0 ≤ k ≤ n) :
,             et    
La première permet de réduire le nombre d’opérations à effectuer en se ramenant à k ≤ n/2. Les deux suivantes permettent de montrer que :

À chaque étape de calcul on effectue d’abord la multiplication puis la division pour obtenir un nombre entier (c’est un coefficient binomial), c’est-à-dire que l’on peut employer la division entière. Les calculs intermédiaires restent d’un ordre de grandeur voisin du résultat final (ce ne serait pas le cas si par exemple on utilisait la première formule et la fonction factorielle).
Le calcul peut s’effectuer par une simple boucle itérative (boucle for).
Soient A un ensemble à n éléments, a un objet qui n’est pas dans A, et k un entier naturel. Alors pour former les parties de ayant k+1 éléments, on forme les parties de k+1 éléments de A, ainsi que les parties de k éléments de A auxquelles on adjoint {a}. Autrement dit :
        ( si k > n)
(cette identité a pour conséquence directe la formule de récurrence permettant de construire le triangle de Pascal : ). Cette identité peut être exploitée pour un algorithme énumérant les combinaisons, par exemple des n premiers entiers.
Soit A l’ensemble de 5 éléments A = {a, b, c , d, e}.

HGÜ-Kurzkupplung

Eine HGÜ-Kurzkupplung, auch als HGÜ-Kurzkopplung, Gleichstromkupplung (GK) oder als Gleichstromkurzkupplung (GKK) bezeichnet, im Englischen Back-To-Back-Station mit der Abkürzung B2B, ist eine Anlage zur Hochspannungs-Gleichstrom-Übertragung, bei der sich beide Stromrichter auf dem gleichen Areal, meist sogar innerhalb des gleichen Gebäudes befinden und die Länge der Gleichstromleitung daher nur wenige Meter beträgt. HGÜ-Kurzkupplungen werden zur elektrischen Verbindung von Stromnetzen, welche jeweils mit Wechselstrom bzw. Dreiphasenwechselstrom betrieben werden, verwendet.
Der Anwendungsbereich liegt bei der Kupplung von Netzen mit verschiedener Netzfrequenz zwischen 60 Hz und 50 Hz wie in Japan bei dem Higashi-Shimizu Frequency Converter oder in Saudi-Arabien bei der GKK Al Fadhili. Des Weiteren werden HGÜ-Kurzkopplungssysteme bei der Kupplung von Netzen mit verschiedener Frequenz und Phasenzahl als Ersatz für Bahnstromumformerwerke mit rotierenden Maschinen verwendet. Ein weiteres Einsatzgebiet ist die Kupplung von zueinander asynchronen Drehstromnetzen, wie bei der in Russland gelegenen HGÜ-Kurzkupplung Wyborg, welche das russische Stromnetz mit dem finnischen Netz verbindet. In den USA sind HGÜ-Kurzkupplungen ebenfalls verbreitet, da dort vier asynchrone Verbundnetze (kontinentale USA mit Kanada, aber ohne Alaska und Hawai) existieren. In Mitteleuropa waren bis 1995/96 die GKK Etzenricht, GK Dürnrohr und die GK Wien-Südost in Betrieb, welche durch den Synchronschluss der west- und osteuropäischen Stromnetze überflüssig wurden.
Im Unterschied zu HGÜ-Fernleitungen kann bei HGÜ-Kurzkupplungen wegen der kurzen Leitungslänge die Gleichspannung im Zwischenkreis niedriger gewählt werden, typisch ist eine Gleichspannung im Bereich von 70 kV bis 150 kV. Man wählt sie stets so, dass die Spannung möglichst niedrig bleibt, um die Stromrichterhalle möglichst klein zu halten, aber stets so hoch, dass für die maximale Übertragungsleistung keine Parallelschaltung von Gleichrichtern nötig ist.

Re matto

Re matto è il secondo EP del cantante italiano Marco Mengoni pubblicato il 19 febbraio 2010 dalla Sony Music. Lo stesso contiene il brano Credimi ancora, terzo classificato al Festival di Sanremo 2010.

Il disco, pubblicato su iTunes il 17 febbraio 2010, è disponibile nei negozi dal 19 febbraio 2010 ed arriva a circa due mesi di distanza dal precedente EP, Dove si vola. Marco Mengoni figura tra gli autori di quasi tutti i brani inediti dell’album ed è anche curatore gran parte delle musiche e degli arrangiamenti. Come dichiarato dallo stesso Mengoni, il disco contiene brani con molteplici stili ed influenze: dal pop-rock del singolo sanremese Credimi ancora, passando per atmosfere R&B ed arrivando alla melodia di ballate come In un giorno qualunque: questa eterogeneità è dovuta alla volontà del cantante di non focalizzarsi su un unico stile e di lasciarsi aperte diverse strade espressive. Alcune tracce dell’album sono state accostate al sound dei Negramaro, mentre per il brano Questa notte Marco Mengoni ha dichiarato di essersi ispirato al cantautore italo-scozzese Paolo Nutini. Su iTunes l’album contiene anche una traccia bonus: la cover live del brano di Eric Clapton Tears in Heaven.
Il 7 maggio 2010 entra in rotazione radiofonica il secondo singolo, Stanco (Deeper Inside). Il brano viene pubblicato sia nella versione tradizionale, sia nella versione Mystify Noise Remix. Così come accaduto ad altri brani in uscita negli stessi giorni, però, viene bloccato dalle radio: questa decisione è dovuta ad una protesta delle emittenti radiofoniche, in relazione a tensioni di carattere economico tra le radio stesse ed il Consorzio Fonografici SCF.
Il terzo e ultimo singolo estratto dall’album è In un giorno qualunque. Il 1º ottobre 2010 esce in radio la versione rimasterizzata del brano, utilizzata anche per il corrispondente videoclip promozionale e inserita nel primo album dal vivo di Marco Mengoni, Re matto live.
Marco Mengoni ha dichiarato che il titolo dell’EP fa riferimento ad un’immagine creatasi nella mente del cantante dopo il raggiungimento della notorietà, grazie alla vittoria della terza edizione di X Factor: «D’improvviso parecchia gente mi ha piazzato su di un piedistallo, o uno di quei troni dorati medioevali. È facile, quasi automatico sentirsi un re: poi però torni a casa, incroci il primo specchio, ti ci guardi dentro e vedi la verità, cioè un ragazzo assolutamente normale, con gli stessi pregi e difetti di prima».
Durante un’intervista al quotidiano Corriere della Sera, Mengoni ha anche spiegato le ragioni della scelta dell’aggettivo matto, affermando di averlo inserito nel titolo dell’EP con la convinzione e la speranza che possa essere la parola che lo accompagnerà per tutta la vita, «perché da che mondo è mondo i pazzi sono gli esseri più liberi della Terra».
Il 25 maggio 2010 viene pubblicato il cofanetto Re matto Platinum Edition, che riunisce gli EP Dove si vola (CD1) e Re matto (CD2).
L’EP ha raggiunto la prima posizione nella Classifica FIMI Album, mantenendola per 4 settimane consecutive. Successivamente viene certificato doppio disco di platino per le oltre 120.000 copie vendute, risultando essere inoltre il 6º album più venduto in Italia nel primo semestre del 2010 ed il nono nel corso dell’intero anno, secondo le classifiche annuali stilate sempre da FIMI.
Per quanto riguarda le certificazioni, le copie di Re matto live, primo album live di Marco Mengoni vengono conteggiate in modo unitario con Re matto.
La produzione del disco è affidata a Cantieri Musicali (già produttori di Giorgia e Alex Baroni). Alla registrazione partecipa l’orchestra Edodea Ensemble di Edoardo De Angelis.
Il Re Matto tour è stato ideato dallo stesso Marco Mengoni, in collaborazione con Stella Fabiani e Luca Tommassini, al quale è stata affidata anche la regia. Le coreografie sono di Luca Tommassini e Francesco Sarracino, i costumi sono di Claudia Tortora e gli intermezzi vocali sono affidati a Cristiana Lionello. Ad accompagnare Mengoni ci sono anche i ballerini Antonio Fiore e Bruno Centola. Il tour si è aperto con un doppio sold-out all’Alcatraz di Milano e si è concluso sempre a Milano l’11 settembre al Palasharp. Il 31 dicembre si è svolta una data speciale a Piazza del Plebiscito a Napoli.
I musicisti che hanno accompagnato Marco Mengoni durante il Re matto tour sono:
Altri progetti

Marcus Claudius Marcellus (consul en -196)

Marcus Claudius Marcellus était un homme politique de la République romaine. Il était le fils du consul et du célèbre général Marcus Claudius Marcellus, tué en 208 av. J.-C. et le père de Marcus Claudius Marcellus.
Selon Tite-Live, il convainquit le Sénat de la culpabilité d’un collègue de son père accusé d’avances sexuelles alors qu’il était encore un enfant (à l’âge de 7 ou 13 ans, vers 226 av. J.-C.). Son père en compensation reçoit une somme d’argent, qu’il a consacré à un temple.
Il a sans doute combattu durant la deuxième guerre punique, accompagnant probablement son père dans diverses campagnes militaires, y compris la campagne contre Syracuse.
En 208 av. J.-C., il est tribun militaire sous l’autorité de son père, quand celui-ci meurt dans un guet-apens, lui-même est grièvement blessé. Le corps de son père lui sera rendu plus tard par Hannibal Barca.
En 204 av. J.-C., il est tribun de la plèbe, désigné pour mener une commission (comprenant Caton l’Ancien) pour étudier les faits contre Scipion l’Africain.
En 200 av. J.-C., il est édile curule avec pour collègue Sextus Aelius Paetus Catus. Ils ont alors tous deux pour mission de ramener d’Afrique du blé, distribué à prix réduit aux citoyens romains.
En 196 av. J.-C., il est consul. Durant son consulat, il mène une campagne en Cisalpine. Les Boïens de Corolamos attaquent son camp par surprise et lui infligent de lourdes pertes. Mais ensuite il remporte une victoire près de Côme sur les Insubres, qui se soumettent. Ensuite, rejoint par son collègue Lucius Furius Purpureo, il ravage le territoire des Boïens. À l’issue de la campagne, il célèbre un triomphe de Galleis Insubribus (« sur les Gaulois Insubres »). Après son consulat, Marcus Claudius remplace Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus, qui vient de décéder en Hispanie, où il assumait également une préture, au poste de pontife.
En 189 av. J.-C., il est censeur.

Baltazar Karol Habsburg

Infant Baltazar Karol Dominik Filip Wiktor Łukasz Habsburg, właściwie: Baltasar Carlos de Austria (ur. 17 października 1629 roku w Madrycie; zm. 9 października 1646 roku Saragossie) – książę Asturii, książę Girony, książę Montblanc, książę Viany, Pan na Balaguer i następca tronu Hiszpanii aż do śmierci oraz Portugalii do 1640.

Baltazar Karol był jedynym synem hiszpańskiego króla Filipa IV Habsburga oraz jego pierwszej żony, Elżbiety Burbon, córki francuskiego króla Henryka IV Burbona i Marii Medycejskiej, córki Franciszka I Medyceusza. Był przyrodnim bratem m.in. ostatniego habsburskiego władcy Hiszpanii, Karola II, a jego rodzoną siostrą była: Maria Teresa, żona Ludwika XIV Burbona. Został ochrzczony 4 listopada 1629 roku. Rodzicami chrzestnymi infanta byli jego wuj, Karol, oraz ciotka, Maria Anna. Podczas chrztu na kryształowym tronie siedziała Inés de Zúñiga y Velasco, żona Gaspara de Guzmana, diuka-hrabiego Olivares, która później została jego guwernantką. Była to najdroższa rzecz, jaką kiedykolwiek widziała. Podczas oficjalnej ceremonii 7 marca 1632 roku (miał 2,5 roku) oficjalnie szlachta Kastylii potwierdziła go jako dziedzica do tronu Kastylii, Aragonii i wszelkich podległych ziem.
Po buncie Katalonii i usamodzielnieniu się Portugalii Filip IV próbował odzyskać siły w utraconych prowincjach. W tym celu 20 sierpnia 1645 w katedrze w Saragossie zaprzysiągł on Baltazara na następcę tronu w Katalonii. 13 listopada tegoż roku książę został zaprzysiężony na następcę tronu Królestwa Walencji. Tak samo uczyniono w Królestwie Nawarry. Dwór przeniósł się Pampeluny, aby 3 maja 1646 roku w Saragossie uznać jego prawa, nadawszy wcześniej mieszkańcom Nawarry przywileje. Po tym fakcie rodzina królewska pozostała w mieście. Prawdopodobnie pod wpływem Baltazara król Filip IV pozbawił znaczenia księcia Olivaresa, któremu książę był nieprzychylny
5 października 1646 roku, w przeddzień 2 rocznicy śmierci królowej-matki Elżbiety, Baltazar Karol i Filip IV udali się na mszę wieczorną. książę zachorował i podczas obchodów tej rocznicy musiał zostać w łóżku. Okazało się, że następca tronu zapadł na ospę prawdziwą, wówczas nieuleczalną. 9 października otrzymał od arcybiskupa Zaragozy ostatnie namaszczenie,odbyła się w jego intencji procesja błagalna, ale tego samego dnia o 9 wieczorem zmarł. Ciało pozostało w Saragossie aż do 16 października, kiedy to przetransportowano je do Eskurialu, gdzie został pochowany. Śmierć ukochanego syna pogrążyła w maraźmie Filipa IV, i tak nękanego problemami wewnętrznymi kraju.
Ze względu na sojusze wewnątrz dynastii władającej znaczną częścią ówczesnej Europy, od Portugalii po Węgry, ojciec szukał Baltazarowi Karolowi żony spośród Habsburgów. Wybór padł na Mariannę Habsburg (1634-1696), córkę cesarza Ferdynanda III i jego siostry ciotecznej ze strony ojca Marii Anny. Pod uwagę brana była też którąś z córek siostry jego matki Henrietty Marii Burbon i Karola I Stuarta, ale tą kandydaturę odrzucono ze względu na różnicę religii (była anglikanką).
Po niespodziewanej śmierci Baltazara Karola w 1649 jego niedoszłą żonę, mającą ledwie 15 lat, poślubił Filip IV, jej wuj ze strony matki. Było to spowodowane z jednej strony rozpaczą po śmierci ukochanego syna, a z drugiej szybką potrzebą spłodzenia następcy tronu wobec braku męskich potomków. Z ich związku narodził się chory na umyśle i ciele Karol II, owoc wielopokoleniowego kazirodztwa w dynastii Habsburgów.
Baltazar Karol został przedstawiony na wielu portretach Juana del Mazo oraz Diego Velazqueza, który był nadwornym malarzem jego ojca. Szczególnie wiele portretów przedstawia go przy polowaniu. Swoje utwory poświęcili mu też m.in. Baltasar Gracián (Wiersz “El Discreto” z 1646), Diego de Saavedra Fajardo czy Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas.

Camden, Delaware

Camden is a town in Kent County, Delaware, United States. It is part of the Dover, Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 3,464 at the 2010 census.

Camden was established in 1783 as a community originally known as Mifflin’s Crossroads. The Camden Historic District, Brecknock, Camden Friends Meetinghouse, Star Hill AME Church, and Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Camden is located at 39°6′46″N 75°32′57″W / 39.11278°N 75.54917°W / 39.11278; -75.54917 (39.112868, -75.549134).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2), all land.
Because of the small size of this town, and its even smaller neighbor of Wyoming, Delaware, the U.S. Postal Service has jointly assigned the towns a single ZIP code, 19934, which is designated as the Camden-Wyoming zip code.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,100 peoples, 835 households, and 573 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,130.9 people per square mile (435.9/km²). There were 886 housing units at an average density of 477.1 per square mile (183.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 76.67% White, 18.00% African American, 0.81% Native American, 1.38% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 0.90% from other races, and 2.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.90% of the population.
There were 835 households out of which 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.3% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.02.
In the town the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $47,097, and the median income for a family was $50,347. Males had a median income of $32,154 versus $25,261 for females. The per capita income for the town was $21,113. About 1.8% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over.

The Terminal

The Terminal is a 2004 American comedy-drama film directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Tom Hanks and Catherine Zeta-Jones. It is about a man who becomes trapped in New York City’s JFK International Airport terminal when he is denied entry into the United States and at the same time cannot return to his native country due to a revolution. The film is partially inspired by the 18-year stay of Mehran Karimi Nasseri in Terminal 1 of Charles de Gaulle International Airport, Paris, France, from 1988 to 2006.

Viktor Navorski (Tom Hanks), a traveller from the fictional nation of Krakozhia, arrives at New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport, only to find that his passport is suddenly no longer valid due to the sudden outbreak of a civil war in his homeland. As a result, the United States no longer recognizes Krakozhia as a sovereign nation, and he is no longer permitted to either enter the country or return home as he is now considered to be stateless. Due to his inability to communicate in proper English, the airport’s branch of the US Customs and Border Protection seize both his passport and airline ticket, whereupon its temporary director, Frank Dixon (Stanley Tucci), makes him stay in the terminal he came through. Left with no other choice, Viktor decides to settle in at a closed off section of the terminal, Gate 67, with only his luggage and a peanut can, soon making a home out of it. Much to the frustration of Dixon, who is being considered for promotion to director of the US Customs branch, Viktor chooses not to break out of the terminal but wait patiently until he can legally enter the United States. Dixon, who wants him to illegally attempt to enter the country so he can deport him, decides to try finding ways to make it difficult for him to survive in the terminal, slowly becoming obsessed in doing so. During his initial days at the terminal, Viktor encounters and helps out a flight attendant named Amelia Warren (Catherine Zeta-Jones) after she slips on a wet floor and breaks the heel of her shoes, who assumes he is a contractor of sorts from the pager he was given by Customs but is surprised by his respectful kindness to her.
When Viktor is unable to secure himself some food after Dixon cuts him off from an avenue of money, his plight is noticed by a food service worker at the airport, Enrique Cruz (Diego Luna), who offers him food in exchange for helping in learning more about an immigration officer that he is infatuated with, Dolores Torres (Zoë Saldana). After meeting with Amelia once again and wanting to take her out for a meal, Viktor begins improving his English while attempting to find work, and is soon hired by an airport contractor and paid under the table after he impulsively remodelled a wall at a gate that was scheduled for future renovation. During this time, he also befriends some of Enrique’s friends whom he plays poker with, including a cargo handler named Joe Mulroy (Chi McBride), and an Indian janitor named Gupta Rajan (Kumar Pallana), learning from the latter that they had come to the States in order to avoid being arrested for assaulting a corrupt police officer back in India in 1979. When a Russian traveller creates a delicate situation when Customs try to remove the medicine he is carrying for his father, Dixon is annoyed when Viktor, whom he uses to persuade the man to leave the medicine behind, claims he misheard his Krakozhian dialect for “father” as “goat” so the traveller can leave with them. Shortly after the traveller leaves, Dixon strong-arms him over a photocopier, nearly blowing his chance for promotion, before later promising Viktor that he will never let him leave the airport. When the airport employees hear from Gupta of the incident in customs with the Russian and what Viktor did, Viktor finds himself respected and admired for his kind-hearted actions, with many stores showing off photocopied images of his hand that had been accidentally made.
When Viktor meets with Amelia once again and takes her out for a meal, he slowly begins taking an interest with her, even wooing her, before offering to surprise her with a gift when she returns, based on his recent knowledge of Napoleon, soon creating a majestic fountain. After helping Enrique finally marry Torres, Viktor awaits the arrival of Amelia. Unbeknown to him, Dixon pulls her aside to question her about Viktor, revealing his true situation in the process. Feeling that he lied to her, Amelia confronts Viktor in Gate 67, shocked at his predicament, and tries to learn why he came to New York. Agreeing to tell her, Viktor reveals the contents of the peanut can he was carrying, explaining that his late father, a jazz enthusiast, had discovered the famous portrait, “A Great Day in Harlem”, in a Hungarian newspaper in 1958, where after spending a week looking at it, he vowed he would collect the signatures of all 57 of the jazz musicians featured on it. Viktor reveals that the can contains not only a copy of the portrait, but the autographs of all the musicians his father received, bar one – tenor saxophonist Benny Golson. After his father died, Viktor had promised to collect the last signature by coming to New York to find Golson. After hearing his story, Amelia kisses Viktor.
After having spent nine months in the terminal, Viktor is awakened by his friends who give him news that the war in Krakozhia has ended. Overjoyed, he celebrates in an airport bar, where Amelia meets with him and explains that a man she had been having an affair with, a government official, helped her to secure Viktor with a one-day emergency visa to fulfil his dream. While delighted, Viktor is saddened when he learns that her “friend” did so in order to renew their relationship. Despite this, Viktor heads off to Customs with renewed hope of going to New York, only to find that Dixon must sign the visa. Seizing the opportunity, Dixon instructs Viktor to go home to Krakozhia, threatening to cause trouble for Viktor’s friends by deporting them if he refuses. Unwilling to let that happen, he agrees to do so, despite his friends offering to prevent this happening. When Gupta, assuming he was acting a coward, learns of the situation he was put into, he decides to take the burden off Viktor by running in front of the plane to Krakozhia as it taxies to the terminal, choosing to let himself be deported back to his home country in order to let his friend go to New York.
Dixon, shocked by this, attempts to stop Viktor leaving as he receives gifts from employees for his trip into the city, but is thwarted by his Custom agents, who allow him to leave. As Viktor leaves, seeing Amelia once more before taking a taxi, Dixon decides to finally not pursue him further. Meanwhile, Viktor arrives in New York at the hotel where Benny Golson is performing, and finally collects the last autograph. As he steps into a taxi and places the last signature into the can, he soon tells the driver, “I am going home.”
Some have noted that the film appears to be inspired by the story of Mehran Karimi Nasseri, an Iranian refugee who lived in Terminal One of the Charles de Gaulle airport, Paris from 1988 when his refugee papers were stolen until 2006 when he was hospitalized for unspecified ailments. In September 2003, The New York Times noted that Spielberg bought the rights to Nasseri’s life story as the basis for the film; and in September 2004 The Guardian noted Nasseri received thousands of dollars from the filmmakers. However, none of the studio’s publicity materials mention Nasseri’s story as an inspiration for the film.
Steven Spielberg traveled around the world to find an actual airport that would let him film for the length of the production, but could not find one. The Terminal set was built in a massive hangar at the LA/Palmdale Regional Airport. The hangar, part of the U.S. Air Force Plant 42 complex was used to build the Rockwell International B-1B bomber. The set was built to full earthquake construction codes and was based on the Düsseldorf International Airport. The shape of both the actual terminal and the set viewed sideways is a cross section of an aircraft wing. The design of the set for The Terminal, as noted by Roger Ebert in his reviews and attested by Spielberg himself in a feature by Empire magazine, was greatly inspired by Jacques Tati’s classic film Play Time. Hanks based his characterization of Viktor Navorsky on his father-in-law Allan Wilson, a Bulgarian immigrant, who according to Hanks can speak “Russian, Turkish, Polish, Greek, little a bit of Italian, little a bit of French”, in addition to his native Bulgarian. Hanks also had some help from a Bulgarian translator named Peter Budevski.
Everything functioned in the set as in real life. There was real food, ice cream and coffee in the appropriate outlets. The escalators were purchased from a department store that had gone bankrupt. Each of the outlets featured in the concourse building was actually sponsored by the real company. Many stores are seen and Viktor seeks a job at the Brookstone, La Perla and Discovery Channel stores, eats at the Burger King, buys his New York City guide book at Borders and buys his suit at Hugo Boss. Enrique proposes to Dolores at Sbarro.[citation needed]
Most exterior shots and those featuring actual aircraft were shot at Montréal–Mirabel International Airport: additional interior shots were also done there including the mezzanine overlooking the immigration desks and the baggage carousels directly behind them, the jetways showing Aéroports de Montréal signs, and many Air Transat planes in the background: New York is not one of their regular destinations. Additional pre-production shooting was done at Los Angeles International Airport and at Spielberg’s offices at DreamWorks. Montreal is also mentioned on the loudspeaker at the beginning of the film, around the point where the customs officer tells Viktor to wait in a special line.[citation needed]
The 747 was provided by United Airlines. The Star Alliance was a major sponsor and provided uniforms, equipment, and actors in addition to those cast. In spite of the heavy presence of the Star Alliance airlines, a Delta Air Lines pilot passes Viktor in a scene during the last five minutes of the film.[citation needed]
Rotten Tomatoes reported that 61% of 198 sampled critics gave the film positive reviews and that it got a rating average of 6.2 out of 10. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the film received an average score of 55 based on 41 reviews. Michael Wilmington from the Chicago Tribune said “[the film] takes Spielberg into realms he’s rarely traveled before.” A. O. Scott of The New York Times said Hanks’ performance brought a lot to the film. However, Joe Morgenstern from The Wall Street Journal thought that “The Terminal is a terminally fraudulent and all-but-interminable comedy.”
The film grossed $77,872,883 in North America and $141,544,372 in other territories, totaling $219,417,255 worldwide.
Krakozhia (Кракозия or Кракожия) is a fictional country, created for the film, that closely resembles a former Soviet Republic or Eastern Bloc state.
The exact location of Krakozhia is kept intentionally vague in the film, keeping with the idea of Viktor being simply Eastern European or from a former Soviet Republic. However in one of the scenes, a map of Krakozhia is briefly displayed on one of the airport’s television screens during a news report on the ongoing conflict, and its borders are those of the Republic of Macedonia. The film presents a reasonably accurate picture of the process of naturalistic second-language acquisition, according to professional linguist Martha Young-Scholten.
John Williams, the film’s composer, also wrote a national anthem for Krakozhia.

BV De Graafschap

Betaald Voetbal De Graafschap (Aussprache: [bə.ˈtaːlt ˈvut.bɑl də ˈɣraːf.ˌsχɑp]) ist ein niederländischer Fußballverein aus Doetinchem.
Der Name De Graafschap bezieht sich auf das Achterhoek bzw. die ehemalige Grafschaft Zutphen.

Der Verein entstand am 1. Februar 1954 aus der Fusion der Vereine BVC und de Graafschap Doetinchem . Am 30. März 2007 wurde das Team nach einem Sieg gegen den FC Emmen Sieger der Eerste Divisie und spielte in der Saison 2007/08 in der Eredivisie, der höchsten niederländischen Spielklasse. In der ersten Saison erreichte man jedoch nur den 16. Platz. Am Ende der Spielzeit 2008/09 unterlag man in drei Relegationsspielen dem RKC Waalwijk und stieg ab. 2010 erreichte der Klub durch 1. Platz in der Eerste Divisie den direkten Wiederaufstieg in die Ehrendivision. Erreichte man 2010/11 noch den 14. Platz, so musste ein Jahr später nach dem 17. Platz in der Spielzeit 2011/12 und zwei Unentschieden gegen den FC Den Bosch in der Relegation aufgrund der Auswärtstorregel erneut der Gang in die Zweitklassigkeit angetreten werden.
Der Spitzname „De Superboeren“ (Aussprache: [də ˈsy.pər.ˌbu.rə(n)]) ‚Die Superbauern‘ entstand als Reaktion darauf, dass Fans der großstädtischen Vereine Ajax Amsterdam und Feyenoord Rotterdam die Spieler und Fans von De Graafschap mit beleidigend gemeinten Sprechchören „Boeren, boere“ (‚Bauern, Bauern‘) „begrüßten“.
AZ Alkmaar | Heracles Almelo | Ajax Amsterdam | Vitesse Arnheim | SC Cambuur | BV De Graafschap | ADO Den Haag | PSV Eindhoven | FC Twente Enschede | FC Groningen | sc Heerenveen | Roda JC Kerkrade | NEC Nijmegen | Excelsior Rotterdam | Feyenoord Rotterdam | Willem II Tilburg | FC Utrecht | PEC Zwolle

Bristol Metropolitan Academy

Bristol Metropolitan Academy, formerly Whitefield Fishponds Community School and later Bristol Metropolitan College, is an academy in Eastville, Bristol, England.

The original school building was built in 1836 by the architect Charles Dyer but was rebuilt after its destruction by German bombs during the second world war, and was replaced in 2008 with a new building on the same site and became an academy from the beginning of the 2009–2010 school year.
In 2003, Briarfield (a specialist school for children with disabilities) was built in Whitefield’s grounds, and later a City Learning Centre (CLC3) was constructed adjacent to Briarfield. The CLC houses equipment designed for work with media projects.
During 2005, Whitefield Fishponds Community School was given Language College status. It is one of the few schools in Bristol to have been awarded this. The status recognises that Whitefield excels in the teaching of foreign languages to the local community.
The focus of the school is the central street, which is designed to be the heart of the school, providing a place for social interaction between students and staff and to give the school a sense of identity and drama. The environmental aspects of the school were also critical; maximisation of natural daylight, use of natural ventilation, recycling of rainwater for use in toilets and the use of biomass, recycled timber waste, to generate heat and power.
The school was designed collaboratively by the architects, an educationalist and also the school itself.
At one time, Whitefield School had four sites – Whitefield Lower Mixed, the lower co ed site located in Alexandra Park in Fishponds,(subsequently an Adult Education Centre), Whitefield Lower Girls on Fishponds Road, Eastville (subsequently demolished for housing) and Whitefield Lower Boys located at Greenbank. Students 11-13 spent the first three years at one of the lower schools, before transferring to the Whitefield Fishponds Upper School, adjacent to the current site of the Bristol Metropolitan College, for years 14-18 (or Sixth Form as the last two years of school were then known).
In 2006 construction began on a new school building, on the existing site, and by summer 2007 the exterior construction was finished, with the interior fitting of the school and the landscaping of grounds to be completed. The old school buildings have been demolished, however Briarfield and CLC3 remained, and the new school building opened in May 2008.
Bristol Metropolitan College was the second school in Bristol to be completed under the Building Schools for the Future programme. Designed by Wilkinson Eyre Architects, it uses the exemplar Learning Cluster, or “strawberries” are they are affectionately known, first used at the John Madjeski Academy in Reading.
The school has improved its results year on year and achieved its best ever GCSE scores in 2011, the table below shows the percentage of students hitting the key measure of 5 A*-C including English and Mathematics.
In 2014 it had the third highest value added score in the country, meaning that irrespective of starting point, students made exceptional progress in English, maths and across the curriculum.
The school’s latest inspection took place on 23 and 24 May 2012 and it received the following grades:

Janet Adam Smith

Janet Adam Smith (9 December 1905 – 11 September 1999) was a writer, editor, literary journalist and champion of Scottish literature. She was active from the 1930s through to the end of the century and noted for her elegant prose, her penetrating judgement, her independence of mind – and her deep love of mountains and mountaineering.
Leonard Miall wrote: “Biographer, mountaineer, critic, literary editor, textual scholar, comic versifier, visiting professor, hostess, anthologist, traveller – there seemed to be nothing at which Janet Adam Smith did not shine. And she shone with an intensity that made others glow in response.”

She was born into the old Scots intellectual elite. Her father, Sir George Adam Smith FBA (1856–1942), was a Biblical scholar, Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament exegesis, at the Free Church College in Glasgow, and then, from 1909 to 1935, Principal of Aberdeen University. Her mother was Lilian Adam Smith, daughter of Sir George Buchanan, FRS, in whose honour the Royal Society’s Buchanan Medal was created. Janet was brought up in a tradition of high thinking and simple but certainly not austere living.
In 1919 she went to Cheltenham Ladies’ College, and in 1923 went on to Somerville College, Oxford, where she read English, graduating in 1926.
In 1935 she married Michael Roberts, who was a poet, critic, editor, mathematician, and, like her, a passionate mountaineer. Roberts’s anthologies of contemporary verse had already established him as, in T.S. Eliot’s phrase, “expositor and interpreter of the poetry of his generation”.
They lived in Newcastle upon Tyne (where he taught at the Royal Grammar School), then from 1939 in Penrith (where the school was evacuated during the war). In 1945 the family moved to London, where Michael Roberts had become Principal of the College of St Mark and St John, in Chelsea. They had four children: Andrew Roberts, Professor of the History of Africa at the University of London, b. 1937; Henrietta Dombey, Professor of Literacy in Primary Education at the University of Brighton, b. 1939; Adam Roberts, Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, b. 1940; and John Roberts, writer on energy issues and Middle East politics, b. 1947.
Michael Roberts died on 13 December 1948. Shortly after, the family moved to a house in the Notting Hill area of London, which remained her home until her death in 1999. In 1965, she married John Carleton, headmaster of Westminster School. He died on 6 November 1974.
She joined the BBC in 1928, and from 1930 to 1935 was Assistant Editor of The Listener. The High Presbyterian ethos of Lord Reith’s BBC was no doubt congenial, though she had a sense of humour and an awareness of social change that Reith lacked. As Assistant Editor, she dealt with articles on art, selected reviewers for literary books, and published new poetry, especially the work of W.H. Auden, Stephen Spender, Herbert Read, Louis MacNeice and Michael Roberts.
In 1935 she published Poems of Tomorrow, an anthology of poems from The Listener, and in 1936 succeeded Michael Roberts as chief reviewer of poetry in T.S. Eliot’s quarterly The Criterion. Between 1936 and 1939 she wrote over a hundred reviews for London weeklies, of books by Scots writers or on Scottish subjects.
Finding herself with three small children in Penrith during the war, while Michael worked in London for the BBC’s European Service, she wrote Mountain Holidays (1946; reissued 1996), in which she recalled pre-war climbs in Scotland and the Alps.
In London from 1945 onwards, Janet Adam Smith continued to write and edit. To the series Britain in Pictures, she contributed Life among the Scots (1946) and Children’s Illustrated Books (1948). Her short biography (1937) had already established her as an authority on Robert Louis Stevenson. She now edited the correspondence between Stevenson and Henry James (1948) and prepared a scholarly edition of Stevenson’s collected poems (1950), both published by Rupert Hart-Davis.
In 1948, left a widow with four young children to educate, she returned to a salaried position in journalism, becoming first assistant literary editor (1949–52), then literary editor (1952–60), of the New Statesman, still the house magazine of the intellectual Left. It was sometimes described as a pantomime horse: its back half, over which she presided, was required reading even for many who disliked the paper’s politics. She was a notably thorough literary editor. One of her successors, Karl Miller, recalled that “Janet used to take the trouble of writing to people to tell them what was wrong with their articles”. Miller saw her – and himself – as “Edinburgh reviewers, latter-day examples of an auld Scots element in literary journalism”.
She still found time for her own work: almost 20 years after Michael Roberts had edited, at T.S. Eliot’s invitation, the classic anthology, the Faber Book of Modern Verse, she matched his achievement with the Faber Book of Children’s Verse (1953), an enchanting and enduring collection. All the poems were tried out on an extended family – her own children, her nephews and nieces, and the children of friends, among whom were the son and daughter of the poet Kathleen Raine. No poem was included, she said, that some child had not loved. She also edited Michael Roberts’s Collected Poems (1958) and, with her friend and fellow climber Nea Morin, translated from the French several mountaineering books, notably Maurice Herzog’s Annapurna (1952).
In 1961 and 1964 she was Virginia Gildersleeve Visiting Professor at Barnard College, New York.
When, at the request of the Buchan family, she came to write her magisterial biography of John Buchan (1965), her profound understanding of Buchan’s temperament and habit of mind owed much to their common cultural background of the democratic and independent-minded Free Church.
Most of her papers are in the National Library of Scotland, at Edinburgh.
Imbued with the tradition of public service, she was a Trustee of the National Library of Scotland from 1950 to 1985, a remarkable record, and president of the Royal Literary Fund from 1976 to 1984.
She received an honorary degree (Hon. LL.D.) from Aberdeen University in 1962 and was made an OBE in 1982 for services to Scottish literature.
She was a keen and accomplished hill-walker and mountaineer. When working in London in her twenties, she would sometimes travel back to Aberdeen taking a night train to Aviemore, Kingussie or Blair Atholl, and then walking over the Cairngorm Mountains to Braemar.
In the 1950s she organized many parties of friends and older children to the Alps to climb and to enjoy the pleasures of mobile holidays. She did a number of classic Alpine routes, including the Mer de Glace face of the Aiguille du Grépon (1955) and the traverse of the Meije (1958). She served as Vice-President of the Alpine Club, 1978–80; and was elected to Honorary Membership of the Club in 1993.
Janet and Michael Roberts had built up a large collection of books on mountaineering, which (along with the collection of the Oxford University Mountaineering Club) provided a basis for establishment in December 1992 of the Oxford Mountaineering Library. This is situated in the Radcliffe Science Library in Parks Road in Oxford. Its location within the Radcliffe Science Library (Level 3) is shown here.
In an obituary published in The Scotsman shortly after her death in September 1999, the Scottish novelist and journalist Allan Massie wrote:
“The critical study of Scottish literature owes much to Janet Adam Smith. … Ernest Mehew, the editor of the great Yale University edition of Stevenson’s Letters, paid tribute to the ‘leading part’ she played ‘in the revival of critical interest in Stevenson’s life and work at a time when he was largely ignored in academic circles’. He referred to the biography, her edition of Stevenson’s correspondence with Henry James, and her two editions of Stevenson’s poetry (1950 and 1971) – ‘a major work of scholarship which has not been superseded’.
“Stevenson was not alone in benefiting from her enthusiastic and discriminating advocacy. Two lectures on Sir Walter Scott and the Idea of Scotland, given at the University of Edinburgh in 1963, gave an impetus to the revival of academic interest in Scott. Her analysis of Waverley is unsurpassed.
“But her masterpiece was her biography of John Buchan. It is probably hard for people today to realise just how low Buchan’s reputation stood in the early Sixties. He was dismissed as a mere entertainer with disreputable political and social views. Janet Adam Smith corrected misconceptions and restored him to his proper status as a serious writer and public figure. Everyone who has written subsequently on Buchan is in her debt. Like all her work, the biography was written with a beautiful and authoritative lucidity.
“Though she wrote no major work after Buchan, she remained an industrious literary journalist … She remained intellectually alert and eager to read new work into extreme old age. …
“Based in England throughout her adult life, she nevertheless remained committed to Scotland and Scottish literature. Karl Miller was right in seeing her as being an heir of the Edinburgh Reviewers, for she was one of the last representatives of the Scottish Enlightenment, marrying clear and bold thinking to generous feeling.”