The World Cup is one of the most popular sporting events in the world. How much do you know about this frenzy of football
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Kicking a football — either a round soccer ball, oval American or rugby ball — uses a lot of muscles and joints. A successful kick requires good eye-foot coordination, balance, accuracy, skill and power. Kicking is predominately a lower-body activity but your whole body is involved in maintaining balance and stability.
Kicking a football uses all of the bones and joints in your lower body. The tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges of your foot provide the contact surface that strikes the ball. The tibia and tarsals form your ankle joint, which must stay slightly flexed but rigid when you kick so that no power is lost. Your knee joint, consisting of the tibia and femur, extends as your thigh muscles contract and your hip, which is made up of your femur and ilium, swings forward in a movement called hip flexion.
The primary muscles in your lower leg used in kicking a football are on opposite sides of your tibia, or shin bone
. Your gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, collectively called your calf, contract to extend your ankle in a movement called plantar flexion, while the muscles on the front of your tibia — tibialis anterior — contracts to hold your ankle rigid. This type of muscle action is called an isometric contraction, which means that while these muscles are generating tension, they are not causing any actual joint movement but merely hold your ankle in place.
Much of the power for kicking a football comes from the action of straightening your knee. This action, called knee extension
, is the result of the contraction of the muscles on the front of your thigh. These muscles are called your quadriceps, which are made up of group of four individual muscles — the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius — that share a common insertion point at the top of your tibia just below your patella, or kneecap.
Swinging your femur forward from your hip is a movement called hip flexion. Hip flexion is the largest joint action when kicking a football, because it starts from a position of extension and finishes with a significant follow-through. The main muscles responsible for hip flexion are psosas major, psosas minor and iliacus, which are collectively known as Iliopsoas, or hip flexors. These three muscles work with your quadriceps muscle rectus femoris and are responsible for the majority of the power required for kicking a football. To allow hip flexion to occur, your three hamstring muscles — semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris — must relax. Tight hamstrings may hamper your kicking ability.
While the muscles listed are responsible for the majority of the movements necessary to kick a football, a number of muscles work to hold various parts of your body steady so your kick is delivered from a solid base of support. These muscles, collectively called stabilizers, include your rectus abdominus or abdominal muscles, your erector spinae muscles or back muscles, your gluteal muscles in your butt.
Football is a fun sport for all seasons and a popular American pastime. You can play full-contact football with tackling and blocking or play two-hand touch rules with flags at your waist. The rules of the game change slightly for the different variations, but the goal remains the same — try to score points when your team is on offense, and try to stop you opponent from scoring when you are on defense. The team with the most points wins.
In flag football, the field is divided into four or five, 20-yard zones. In full-contact football, the zone lines are kept in 10-yard increments. The offense has four attempts to pass the “first-down” line, which is 10 yards
, or it must turn over the ball to the other team on downs or by punting. Kicking the ball through the goalposts gives your team three points, which is called a field goal. A six-point touchdown is awarded to the team that can cross the end zone at the opposite end of the field. A point after touchdown is added by a kicker by kicking the ball through the goalposts
, or your team can choose to run a play for two points after a touchdown.
Defensive players can use tackling to bring an opponent down to the ground
. You can’t use your fists or tackle a player once the referee calls an end to the play. Offensive players can block defenders, but they can’t hold or hit a player below the knees. In flag football, you are not allowed to tackle another player at all. Once a player’s flag is removed, they are considered down and the play is over.
For full-contact football
, safety equipment is required. Football players must wear a helmet with face mask, as well as pads over the shoulders, chest and midsection, hips, thighs and knees. In flag football, there is less contact on the field, so helmets and shoulder pads are not permitted. Instead, each player wears two brightly colored flags.
The Champions League is one of the world’s most renowned sporting leagues. How much do you know about this frenzy of football
Losing 10 lbs. in one month is a challenging but achievable goal. Most slow and steady diet and exercise plans have you losing around 2 lbs. per week. As you track your daily calories, remember that you can trim calories by changing your diet as well as exercising. Maintain your weight loss once the month is over by making lifestyle changes in your diet plan and workout schedule. Check with your health care provider before your begin any new exercise program or make changes in your diet for weight loss.
The basic math of weight loss is that, to lose a single pound of fat, you need to burn 3,500 calories. Therefore, to lose 10 lbs. in one 30-day month, you would have to burn 35,000 calories during the month, or about 1,166 calories per day. This schedule offers no rest days from exercise and no cheating days from your diet. If you prefer one day of rest from exercise, aim to burn 1,346 calories per day the other 26 days in the month.
Burning over 1,000 calories per day is far easier if you engage in one hour of cardiovascular activity. In fact, if you do a vigorous aerobic exercise, such as running or rollerblading, you will already have burned between 900 and 1,400 calories in one hour. The more you weigh or the more muscle you have, the more calories you burn. Other fat-burning workouts that burn around 600 to 800 calories per hour include jumping rope, tae kwon do, jogging, playing football and climbing stairs.
Strength training does not burn calories at the same clip as an aerobic workout, but it does raise your resting metabolic rate. As you build muscle mass, you burn calories throughout the day. Try a circuit of resistance machines and free weights at the gym, or implement a routine of strengthening exercises that do not require equipment. Pushups, squats with bicep curls and abdominal crunches with leg lifts offer full-body workouts. Target your upper body with pullups and your lower body with lunges and lateral raises.
As you progress in your fitness goals, you burn less calories with the same workout. Increase the level of challenge in your exercise routine by doing interval training. In this model
, you vary your pace and include short bursts of speed, which quickly raise your heart rate and keep it elevated even as you return to a recovery pace. Doing an interval workout can be as simple as cycling or running on a hilly route and pushing harder on the inclines. Turn any workout into interval training by increasing your pace every five minutes
. Spend 30 seconds sprinting, skipping rope or doing jumping jacks; recover for one minute; and return to your workout.
You’ll feel full by the amount of food you eat, not the number of calories you consume, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Increase the amount of nutrient-dense and fiber-rich natural foods you eat in place of high calorie processed foods and fats. A healthy eating plan to fill you up will include whole grains, fruit, vegetables, lean meats, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. Some simple food swaps will help you trim around 1,000 calories per day from your diet
. A piece of fruit instead of dessert saves you around 450 calories. Cut out that sweetened coffee drink and have unsweetened iced tea and you save around 400 calories. Eat berries instead of a snack bag of chips or a large order of french fries and you save another 500 calories.
Participation in youth sports has grown for boys and girls. Sports provide benefits of exercise and companionship with teammates. Allowing children to compete in a safe and fun environment allows kids to develop skills of perseverance
, training, work ethic, and at a young age body kinesthetics (ability to know how to move one’s body).
According to ESPN, the most popular sport for girls is basketball with over 450,000 girls playing for a school-sponsored team. The sport has also risen between 2006 and 2012 to become the most popular among boys with over 550,000 boys playing for a school-sponsored team. This sport can be more competitive as far as selection as kids become older. At younger ages though there are many developmental leagues to teach basic skills without the pressure of competition.
Termed America’s favorite pastime, baseball and its variations are popular sports among America’s youth. At a young age, boys and girls begin by playing tee ball. As they age, they may enter a league where the balls will be pitched from a machine. Beyond that, the sport will split into baseball for boys and softball for girls. Both sports rank second among the top five organized sports for their gender among youths.
This is the third most popular sport among boys with more than 1 million interscholastic participants as of 2012. This excludes youth league participants. Football allows for kids of any shape and size (variation of positions) to compete in a team atmosphere. Parents tend to be concerned about this sport because of the contact. However
, if taught properly, football can be one of the safest sports to play because of padding and helmets
Perhaps one of the fastest growing sports in America among the youth is soccer. Soccer is the last sport to cross both gender groups top five for youth. It is an easy sport to begin learning and to play, which makes it exciting for youngsters almost immediately. Although it is simple at first, strategy and advanced skills develop over time making the game more competitive as they grow older.
Popular among female youths
, volleyball also provides a team opportunity. Volleyball at a young age does not require skills that some other sports may require, making it easy for someone to begin playing. As with most sports though
, as age progresses so does the skill level and competition. Volleyball ranks as a top five sports for girls.
This sport allows a youth to still participate individually and as a team at the same time. Track and field allows participation across a broad spectrum of athletic capabilities. Youths have a chance to compete in many events from sprinting to distance runs and throwing to jumping. Track and field can provide an opportunity for most any youth to get out and compete.
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Some NCAA Division I schools specialize in football. Others are best known for basketball. Maintaining success in both sports is a challenge, but a few schools have been up to the task. According to the 2013 NCAA record book, 10 elite schools have won NCAA titles in both Division I basketball and in football’s top division, currently known as the Football Bowl Subdivision. Prior to 1998
, a variety of organizations selected national football champions, resulting in shared titles in many of those years.
Three schools that currently play in the Big Ten conference have won national championships in both football and basketball. The University of Michigan won or shared nine NCAA football titles between 1901 and 1997. The latter team was led by Charles Woodson
, the only primarily defensive player to win the Heisman Trophy. Michigan won the basketball championship under unusual circumstances in 1989. At the end of the regular season, head coach Bill Frieder announced he would leave for Arizona State the following season. He was then replaced by assistant coach Steve Fisher, who guided the Wolverines to the title. Ohio State has won or shared seven football titles, most recently winning the 2002 BCS title game 31-24 against Miami in double overtime to complete a 14-0 season
. The Buckeyes won the NCAA basketball tournament in 1960. Michigan State won the football title by itself in 1952 and shared honors in 1965 and 1966. The 1966 team ended its season with a de facto championship game against Notre Dame, which ended in a 10-10 tie when the Irish chose to run out the clock after gaining possession on their 30-yard line with 1:10 remaining. Led by Magic Johnson, Michigan State won the 1979 NCAA basketball tournament. It earned its second basketball title in 2000
Three current members of the Pac-12 conference have earned dual titles, beginning with Stanford. The Cardinal tied Alabama 7-7 in the Rose Bowl game following the 1926 season and the teams shared the national title. Stanford then won the NCAA basketball title in 1942. The University of California won or shared three consecutive football championships, from 1920 to 22, plus the 1959 basketball championship. UCLA shared the 1954 football title with Ohio State, but it is best known for winning 11 NCAA basketball titles. The Bruins won 10 championships in 12 seasons under coach John Wooden from 1964 through 1975, then won again in 1995. Four of Wooden’s teams went undefeated. His Bruins featured stars such as Gail Goodrich, Lew Alcindor — later known as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar — and Bill Walton.
The SEC has dominated college football in the 21st century, but two of the conference’s schools have added basketball titles to their football championships. Arkansas shared the 1964 football national title with another SEC school, Alabama, plus Notre Dame. The Razorbacks also won the 1994 NCAA championship game — with President Bill Clinton, the former Arkansas governor, in attendance. Florida has three undisputed football titles, including BCS championship game victories in 2006 and 2008. Tim Tebow, the 2007 Heisman Trophy winner, contributed to the 2006 victory and was the offensive most valuable player of the 2008 title game. The Gators also earned consecutive basketball championships in 2006 and 2007
. In 2006, Florida became the first school to win the NCAA football and basketball championships in the same season.
ACC schools Maryland and Syracuse have each earned one NCAA football and basketball championship. Maryland, which moves to the Big Ten in the fall of 2014, won the football title in 1953 and the basketball crown in 2002. Syracuse earned its football title in 1959, then won the NCAA basketball tournament in 2003 with a young team led by freshman Carmelo Anthony.
If you play rugby or American football, you need a quality pair of cleats. These shoes provide necessary traction on different types of playing surfaces and field conditions. When shopping for cleats, it is important to remember that rugby and American football use different types of cleats, and that league rules often specify what is appropriate.
A primary difference between the cleats used in rugby and in American football is the number of studs on the bottom of each shoe. Rugby cleats have six to eight studs, while American football cleats typically have at least seven to 12 studs and vary widely in the number. Some football cleats have more than 12 studs, especially the molded cleats favored by many youth football leagues.
The Football Cleats Guide website states that molded cleats have small rubber or plastic studs permanently affixed to the sole of the shoe. It also notes that molded cleats are good for most grass fields. Some football cleats are made with detachable studs. In contrast, all rugby cleats come with detachable studs. Traditional rugby cleats also have a high-cut design to provide extra support to the ankle.
British Broadcasting Corp. Sports reports that rugby players prefer cleats with detachable screw-in studs that can be changed according to the playing field surface. For a muddy or soft surface, rugby players attach longer studs. For drier, harder surfaces, they use shorter studs. Some American football players wear cleats with detachable studs, but these shoes have more studs than rugby cleats.
Among rugby cleats, the types with six studs have two in the front, under the ball of the foot, and four in the back. The eight-stud types have six in the front and two on the heel. The Rugby Rugby website states that the six-stud design helps players run faster
. Football cleats, which have more studs, can include some at the toes. Regulation 12 from the International Rugby Board (IRB), the governing organization for world rugby, describes rules for players’ clothing, including cleats. This regulation prohibits studs or cleats at the toe of the shoe.
The IRB regulation prohibits rugby cleats with studs longer than 21 mm. In addition, cleats must have no sharp edges
. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), which governs college football, prohibits cleats greater than 1/2-inch in length. Cleat lengths in the National Football League range from 3/8-inch for normal conditions to one inch for extreme conditions, such as a winter game on a snowy field. Allowable cleats for high school football vary by association, but in general high school football prefers molded cleats or detachable cleats of no more than 1/2-inch in length
Fans of NFL Super Bowl commercials might remember the 2003 competition as the day the world was introduced to “office linebacker” Terry Tate. A series of ads sprinkled throughout the televised game featured Tate, a 250-pound, football jersey-wearing behemoth who blindsides unassuming office workers for various workplace violations. Take the last of the coffee without refilling the pot
? He’ll lay you out (“You kill the joe
, you make some mo’!”). Make a long-distance personal call on the office phone
? Terry will put you through a cubicle wall.
For office dwellers whose workspace isn’t patrolled by a vicious tackling machine, there are likely still a number of less menacing dangers lurking in your office space. Office workers sustain more than 75,000 on-the-job injuries — from sprains and strains to broken bones — each year, according to the U
.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Many of these injuries are caused by falls, falling objects or over-exertion, but the culprit is frequently an ordinary office item.
Before you shove that stack of papers in the shredder, read on to find out the 10 most dangerous items in the office, as well as tips for safely handling them.
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